Question 747: A young girl has reached the
age of taklif. However, she cannot fast in this month of Ramazan due to her weak
constitution. She is also unable to perform qaza' of the missed fasts until the next
Ramazan. What is the ruling in this situation?
A: The obligation of fasting or performing
the qaza' of missed fasts, is not removed just because of weakness. Qaza' of the missed
fasts of Ramazan will remain obligatory on her.
Question 748: What is the ruling for those
girls who have recently reached puberty [bulugh] and find it somewhat difficult to fast?
Is nine years the age when girls become mature?
A: The legal age of puberty for girls
starts at the completion of nine lunar years, when it is obligatory on them to fast. It is
not permissible to omit fasting due to some excuse. However, if fasting during the day
becomes harmful for them or causes haraj, it is permissible to break the fast.
Question 749: I do not know exactly when I
reached the age of taklif. As I was not aware of this issue at that him, please
from which time is it obligatory for me to perform the qaza' of missed prayers and
Is it obligatory for me to pay the atonement [kaffarah] for the missed fasts or is their
A: You are only responsible for
the time you are certain that you reached the age of taklif. payment of kaffarah is
obligatory for fasts which were intentionally broken by a person who was certain that he
/she had become mature.
Question 750: A nine-year old girl for
whom it is obligatory to fast, breaks her fast because fasting was very hard upon her.
Does she have to perform its qaza'?
A: Yes, she will have to perform the
of the Ramazan fast that she broke.
Question 751: Someone with a strong excuse
thought it likely, with more than 50% probability, that fasting was not obligatory on
so he did not fast. Later it becomes clear to him that fasting was obligatory on him at
that time. What is the ruling in respect of performing qaza' and paying kaffarah?
A: If one breaks a fast of Ramazan for
assuming that fasting is not obligatory on him, then he must perform its qaza' and also
pay the kaffarah. However, if one did not fast because of the fear that fasting was
harmful for him, then it is not necessary for him to pay any kaffarah, but must perform
Question 752: A person performing military
service could not fast during the month of Ramazan last year because of frequent traveling
and presence in the area of service. As Ramazan approaches this year, he is still serving
in the same area and does not think he will be able to fast this year too. Does he have to
pay the kaffarah after leaving the service, in addition to their qaza'?
A: When one does not fast in the month of
Ramazan due to traveling, and this excuses remains valid throughout the year until next
Ramazan, then his only duty is to perform the qaza' and no kaffarah is obligatory on
Question 753: A fasting person was unaware
the he was in the state of janabah until the time of zuhr prayers. Then he performed
irtimasi bath [performed through submerging the whole body in water]. Does it make his
fast void? And if he realizes what he has done only after he has submerged his body in
water, does he have to perform qaza'?
A: If one performs irtimasi bath due to
forgetfulness or inattention to the fact that he is fasting, then both his fast and bath
are valid and he does not have to perform any qaza'.
Question 754: A person who is fasting had
planned to reach his place of residence before time of zuhr prayers. But he met an
accident on the way that delayed him and he could not reach the area of his residence in
time. Is his fast valid? Does he have to pay kaffarah or just qaza' will be
A: His fast is not valid when
It is only obligatory on him to perform the qaza' of the fast of the day that he did not
reach his place of residence, and he does not have to pay kaffarah.
Question 755: A passenger or a crew member
aboard an aeroplane flying on high altitude and bound for a distant city at 2.5 to 3
hours' journey has to drink water every 20 minutes to maintain his equilibrium. Does
he/she have to pay a kaffarah in addition to performing the qaza'?
A: If fasting causes harm, one can break
the fast to drink water. He will have to perform its qaza' but kaffarah will not be
obligatory on him in this case.
Question 756: If a woman's periods begin
two hours or earlier before the maghrib prayers in the month of Ramazan, will her fast be
void for that day?
A: Yes, her fast is void.
Question 757: What rule applies to someone
who immerses himself in water wearing waterproof clothing like a diving suit which does
not allow the body to become wet?
A: If the dress is in close contact with
his head, there is a problem in his fast being valid. Hence, as an obligatory precaution
he should perform its qaza'.
Question 758: Is it permitted for a person
to travel intentionally during the month of Ramazan in order to break the fast and relieve
himself of its burden?
A: There is no problem in one doing so.
When one travels, even to escape the duty of fasting, he must break the fast.
Question 759: A person under the
obligation to qaza' of an obligatory fast he had missed, decided to fulfil his
could not because of unforeseen circumstances. He prepared to travel after
failed to return home before noon. He had not done anything which invalidates the fast,
but as the time for making the niyyah of an obligatory fast had elapsed, and as it was a
day of recommended fast, is it valid if he makes the niyyah of a recommended fast?
A: When one is responsible for
qaza' of a
Ramazan fast, it is not valid to make niyyah to perform a mustahabb fast, even if the time
for making niyyah for performing an obligatory fast has passed.
Question 760: I am addicted to
matter how much I try not to be irritable in the blessed month of Ramazan, to I can not
abstain from a conduct that disrupts the peace of my family and puts me into a nervous
state. What is my duty in this situation?
A: It is obligatory on you to fast in the
month of Ramazan and it is not permissible for your to smoke while fasting. Also, acting
irritably without justification with others is unlawful, and refraining from smoking has
no relation to anger.
Question 761: Is fasting obligatory for a
pregnant woman in the first few months of pregnancy?
A: Pregnancy alone does not relieve
someone of the obligation of fasting. But if she has a reasonable fear that fasting would
be harmful for herself or the baby, then it is not obligatory on her to fast.
Question 762: A pregnant woman does not
know whether fasting will harm the baby or not. Does she have to fast?
A: If she has reasonable grounds to fear
that fasting would harm her baby, then it is not obligatory on her to fast, otherwise she
Question 763: A pregnant women fasted
while she was also breast-feeding her baby. When she delivered, the baby was found dead.
From the beginning she had thought that her fasting might be harmful, but she fasted
1. Were her fasts valid?
2. Is she liable to pay blood money?
3. What is the ruling in her case if she did not think that her fasting would be harmful,
but later found it to be otherwise?
A: If she fasted even after she had
reasonable fears that fasting will be harmful to her or her baby, or she discovered later
that fasting was harmful to herself or her baby, then her fast is void, and she has to
perform its qaza' However, her liability to blood money will depend on proving that the
death of the foetus was caused by her fasting.
Question 764: On delivery, God Almighty
blessed me with a son, thanks be to God, and he is being breast-fed. The blessed month of
Ramazan is approaching, and I am capable of fasting presently. But if I do fast, my milk
will dry up, as I have a weak constitution and my baby, thank God, wants milk every ten
minutes. What should I do?
A: If there is a fear of harm to your baby
in a decrease in the quantity of milk or its drying up due to fasting, it is permissible
for you to break the fast. for every day you missed the fast , you have to give one mudd
[750 grams] of food to the poor, and to perform the qaza' of missed fasts later on.
Question 765: Some physicians who are not
truly committed to Islamic laws forbid their patients to fast, claiming that fasting is
detrimental to their health. Should their orders be acted upon or not?
A: If the physician cannot be trusted and
one does not have confidence in his statements, and there is no fear of harm through
fasting, his statements are not worthy of notice.
Question 766: My mother was ill for a
period of almost 13 years and could not fast. I know for certain that we had stopped her
from this duty because she had to take medicines. Please tell us if it is obligatory on
her to perform their qaza'.
A: If she was not able to fast due to her
illness, she does not have to perform the qaza' for those days.
Question 767: I did not fast since
reaching the age of puberty until I was twelve years old because I was physically too weak
to do so. What should I do now in this regard?
A: You should perform qaza' of the Ramazan
fasts you did not perform after reaching the age of taklif. And if you did not perform the
fasts deliberately and voluntarily and without having a legitimate excuse, then you will
have to pay the kaffarah well.
Question 768: An ophthalmologist ordered
me not to fast due to an eye disease. But, as I was not convinced I began to fast.
However, while I was fasting I felt a pain in the afternoons on some days. Now, I wonder
whether I should refrain from fasting or bear the pain until sunset? Basically is it
obligatory for me to fast? should I maintain the fast on the days that I fast without
knowing whether I can continue the fast until sunset? What should be my niyyah?
A: If you trust the orders of your
physician, or you fear that fasting might be harmful for your health, then you should not
fast. In fact it is not permissible for you to fast in such a situation, and a niyyah to
fast is not valid when there is fear of harm. When there is no fear of harm, there is no
obstacle to your fasting, but the validity of your fast will depend on the actual absence
Question 769: I wear medical glasses and
am physically very weak at the present. The doctors tell me that if I do not strengthen my
physique my eyesight will get weaker. If I am unable to perform the Ramazan fasts, What is
my shar'i duty?
A: If fasting is harmful for your eyes,
you do not have to fast. In fact it is obligatory that you refrain from fasting. And if
your eyesight does not get better until the next Ramazan, then your duty is to give one
mudd [750 grams ] food to the needy for every day that you did not fast.
Question 770: My mother is seriously sick,
and my father is also physically weak. Nevertheless, both of them fast. sometimes, it is
quite evident that fasting aggravates their illness. So far, I have not been able to
persuade them to refrain from fasting at least at times when their illness is serious.
Please guide us concerning the rule that applies to their fasting?
A: The criterion in determining the
inability to fast, or whether fasting causes illness, or aggravates it, is the opinion of
the fasting person himself. However, if it is known that fasting is harmful for him and he
still decides to fast, it is unlawful.
Question 771: Last year I had a surgery of
my kidneys, and the surgeon ordered me not to fast for the rest of my life. However, I
have been eating and drinking in the normal way and I do not feel any signs of disease.
What is my duty?
A: If you personally do not fear any harm
due to fasting and there is no legitimate fround for it, it is your to fast during the
month of Ramazan.
Question 772: Since some physicians are
not aware of Islamic laws, should the patient obey a physician's order if he forbids
A: If the patient trusts the physician's
statement that fasting is harmful for him, or is led to believe that it is so either on
the basis of his statements or on some other reasonable grounds, then it is not obligatory
on him to fast.
Question 773: Due to some kidney trouble,
the doctors have ordered me to use fluids continuously. As they have prohibited me from
fasting, what is my duty regarding fasting during the blessed month of Ramazan?
A: If the treatment of your illness
requires that your drink water and other fluids during the day also, it is not obligatory
on you to fast.
Question 774: Diabetics are required to
take insulin injections once or twice a day. Also, their meals should not be delayed or
taken at long intervals, otherwise they might go into a coma or get fits. That is why
physicians advise them to have four meals a day. please given your opinion concerning
A: If abstaining from eating and drinking
from dawn to sunset is harmful to their health, fasting is not obligatory on them. In fact
it is not permissible for them to fast.
Question 775: If a person who is fasting
bleeds in the mouth, does it invalidate his fast?
A: Bleeding in the mouth does not void
fast. However, the blood should not be swallowed.
Question 776: Please give your opinion
concerning the use of snuff by a person who is fasting.
A: If the use of snuff causes anything to
go down the throat from the nose, then it will be forbidden for a person who is fasting.
Question 777: Some people use `Naas,`
which made up of tobacco and other constituents, and they put it under their tongues for a
few minutes, then they spew it out. Does that void the fast?
A: If they swallow the saliva mixed with
Naas, then their fast will become void.
Question 778: There is a medicine for
asthma patients, which is in the form of a spray containing a vapour-borne powder which
dnter the patient's lungs through the mouth providing him relief. At times, asthmatic
patients needs to use it several times a day. Is it permissible to fast while using such
A: Hf what goes into their lungs through
the mouth is only air, that does not harm the fast. But if the air mixed with medicine in
the shape of a powder or dust, the fast's validity is problematic. Hence, it is obligatory
to avoid it. However, if fasting without it is difficult or harmful, using the medicine is
Question 779: My gums often bleed and the
blood gets mixed with saliva. At times I am not sure whether the saliva that enters my
throat is mixed with blood or not. please tell me what I am supposed to do to overcome
A: If the blood from your gums gets mixed
with saliva in a way that it can no longer be distinguished, then the saliva is clean and
can be swallowed. If you are not sure whether the saliva is mixed with blood or not, it
can still be swallowed without affecting the fast.
Question 780: Once in the holy month of
Ramazan, I forgot to brush my teeth, and some tiny bits of food remained in my mouth. I
swallowed the bits unintentionally. Do I have to perform the qaza' for that day's fast?
A: If you did not know that some bits of
food remained in your mouth, or you did not know that they might be swallowed, and they
were swallowed unknowingly and unintentionally, then you are not liable to anything in
respect of your fast.
Question 781: The gums of a person who is
fasting bleed a lot. Does that invalidate his fast? Moreover, is it permissible to pour
water over one's head with a jug?
A: The blood coming out of the gums does
not invalidate the fast unless it is swallowed. Also one's fast is not affected by pouring
water nver one's head with a jug or something else.
Question 782: There are certain medicines
for feminine illnesses that are applied through the vagina. Does their use invalidate the
A: The use of such medicine does not
invalidate the fast.
Question 783: Please explain your view on
injections given by dentists or other physicians to persons fasting during the blessed
month nf Ramazan.
A: There is no problem in taking these
injections. But if they are nutritional, then precaution is to avoid them during fast.
Question 784: Does intravenous injection
of nutritive fluids, as are given to patients in hospitals, invalidate the fast?
A: The permissibility of intravenous
injection of nutritional fluids into the body during fast is problematic. Therefore,
precaution is not to be `bandoned in avoiding them.
Question 785: Is it permissible to take
pills for high blood pressure during fasting?
A: If taking these pills during Ramazan is
necessary for controlling high blood pressure, it is permissible , but it will invalidate
Question 786: since taking tablets for
treatment is not commonly regarded as eating or drinking, would taking pills void the
A: Taking pills through the mouth
invalidates the fast. However, their anal use does not affect the fast.
Question 787: During the month of Ramazan
my wife forced me to have intercourse. What is the ruling concerning us?
A: The rule of intentional breaking of the
fast applies to both of you. Hence it is obligatory for the two of you to perform its
qaza' along with its kaffarah.
Question 788: When a man has foreplay with
his wife during the day in the month of Ramazan, does it invalidate his fast?
A: As long as it does not result in
ejaculation, his fast is not affected. Otherwise it is not permissible.
Question 789: If one stays in the state of
janabah [because of some difficulty] until the morning azan, can he/she fast the following
A: There is no problem if one is
performing a fast other than that of Ramazan or its qaza. However, as to the fast of
Ramazan or its qaza' if one has a lawful excuse for not performing ghusl, then it is
obligatory to perform tayammum. And if he does not perform tayammum either, the fast is
Question 790: A person fasts for some days
in the state of janabah without knowing that taharah from janabah is required for a valid
fast. Does he/she have to pay kaffarah for the days fasted in the state of janabah, or it
is enough to perform the qaza' of those fasts?
A: If he woke up in janabah and stayed in
that state because of ignorance of the fact that one has to perform ghusl [or tayammum],
then as per precaution he should also pay kaffarah in addition to performing their qaza'.
However, if his ignorance was due to qusur [ignorance of being ignorant], kaffarah is
apparently not obligatory upon him, though precaution lies in making the kaffarah.
Question 791: Is it permissible for one to
perform janabah bath after sunrise and then perform a qaza' or mustahabb fast?
A: If one deliberately stays in the state
of janabah until morning azan, then his fast is not valid if it is a fast of Ramazan or
one of its qaza'fasts. Other than that, it is strongly probable [aqwa] that other fasts
are valid, especially recommended ones.
Question 792: A faithful brother has asked
me the following question. He got married ten days prior to the month of Ramazan. He had
heard that the shar'i rule regarding a junub person was that if one gets junub after the
morning azan and performs ghust before the call to zuhr prayers his fast would be valid
[he claims he was convinced that this was the rule]. Accordingly, he would have
intercourse with his wife on the basis of such a notion. Later, he realized that the rule
on the issue was not what he believed it be. what is the ruling concerning this case?
A: The rule for one who intentionally
becomes junub after morning prayers is the same as that of one who intentionally breaks
the fast; that is, both qaza' and kaffarah are obligatory upon him.
Question 793: A person staying as a guest
in his host's house becomes junub at night during the month of Ramazan,. As he is a guest
and does not have any extra clothes, he decides to travel the following day to avoid
fasting. He takes off after the morning azan with the intention to travel without breaking
the fast. The question is , does his intention to travel relieve him of the kaffarah or
A: Neither mere intention of travelling at
night nor travelling in the day is sufficient to relieve one of the kaffarah if one
becomes junub and knows that he is in the state of janabah without making an immediate
attempt to perform ghusl or tayammum before dawn.
Question 794: Is it permissible for one to
become intentionally junub during the night in the month of Ramazan even if he does not
have water or has some other excuse [except shortness of time]?
A: It is permissible if his obligation was
tayammum and he had sufficient time to perform it.
Question 795: A person woke up before the
morning azan but did not realize that he was junub and went back to sleep. Later, he woke
up during the morning azan and realized that he has been junub. What is the ruling
concerning his fast?
A: If he did not realize that he was in
the state of janabah before the morning azan, then his fast is valid.
Question 796: A person wakes up after the
morning azan during the month of Ramazan and realizes that he is junub and then goes back
to sleep to rise some time after sunrise [without performing the subh prayers ]. Then he
delays the ghusl until after the call to zuhr prayers, and says the zuhr and asr prayers.
What is the ruling regarding his fast on that day?
A: His fast is valid, and delaying the
ghusl until noon does not affect it.
Question 797: During the month of Ramazan
a person doubts before the morning azan whether he is in a state of janabah or not.
However, he goes back to sleep without ascertaining his doubt. After the morning azan, he
wakes up gain to realize that he had been in a state of janabah. What is the ruling
concerning his fast?
A: If no sign of janabah was observed the
first time he woke up but had a mere suspicion that was not confirmed, and he went back to
sleep until after the morning azan, then his fast is valid, even if he finds later that he
had been in a state of janabah before the morning azan.
Question 798: A person uses najis water to
perform ghusl during the month of Ramazan. A week later, he remembers that the water was
najis. What is the ruling concerning his prayers and fasts during that period?
A: His prayers are void and he is liable
to their qaza', but his fasts are valid.
Question 799: A person suffers from
incontinence for a limited duration, i.e., it continues for an hour or more after passing
urine. What is the ruling concerning his fast if he is in a state of janabah on some
nights and he might wake up an hour before the morning azan and it is probable that semen
may come out with urine afterwards? What is he to do to start the fast in a state of
A: If he performs the ghusl or tayammum
before the morning azan, his fast is valid, even if there is an involuntarily discharge of
Question 800: A person sleeps prior to, or
after, the morning azan. He becomes junub, realizing it after the morning azan. How much
time does he have to perform the ghusl?
A: Being in janabah under the condition
stated does not void that day's fast. However, it is obligatory on him to perform the
ghusl for prayers, and he may delay it until the time of prayers.
Question 801: If one forgets to perform
janabah bath during the month of Ramazan, or during other days, and remembers during
daytime, What is the rule in this case?
A: If one forgets to perform janabah bath
during the month of Ramazan at night before morning azan, his fast is void. As per
precaution, the same rule applies to the qaza' of Ramazan fasts. However, other fasts do
not become void if one forgets to perform janabah bath before morning azan.
Question 802: About seven years ago I
intentionally invalidated my fast for several days during the month of Ramazan by
masturbating. However, I do not know for sure how many days' fast I violated in this way
during the course of three Ramazans. I do not think they were less than 25 to 30 days.
What is my obligation and the kaffarah that I should make?
A: Invalidating a day's fast in the
blessed month of Ramazan through masturbation which is prohibited by Islamic law, requires
two kaffarahs: fasting for sixty days, and feeding sixty poor persons. As far as feeding
sixty persons is concerned, you can give each of them one mudd of food for each day.
Giving money cannot be a substitute unless it is given to a poor person to buy food in
your stead [niyabah] and it is accepted by him for himself as a kaffarah. Determining the
price of the food given as kaffarah depends on the kind of food you choose for giving the
kaffarah , either in the shape of wheat, or rice, or any other kind of food. As for the
number of fasts you invalidated through masturbation, you are allowed to perform the qaza'
and give kaffarah for the number of days that you are certain about.
Question 803: A mukallaf, knowingly and
intentionally, invalidates the fast by masturbating, does he have to offer the two-fold
kaffarah? What is the rule if he does it without knowing that masturbation invalidates the
A: In both cases he must offer the
two-fold kaffarah if he masturbates intentionally.
Question 804: I had an emission during the
blessed month of Ramazan for no reason other than excitement that I felt during a
telephone conversation with a non-mahram woman. As the phone conversation was not for the
purpose of pleasure, was my fast invalid? And if it was, do I have to pay kaffarah as
A: If it was not a previous habit of yours
to have an emission on conversing with a woman, and the phone conversation was not
intended for pleasure and the emission was involuntary, then your fast is valid, and you
are not liable to anything.
Question 805: A person practised
masturbation for a number of years during the fasting month and at other times. What is
rule regarding his prayers and fasts?
A: Masturbation is absolutely prohibited,
and when it leads to an emission it causes one to become junub. If done during fasting, it
amounts to breaking the fast with something unlawful. If one performs prayers and fasts in
the state of janabah, without performing ghusl or tayammum, his prayers and fasts are void
and he must perform their qaza'.
Question 806: Is it permissible for the
husband to masturbate using his wife's hand? Is there any difference whether it is done
during intercourse or not?
A: There is no problem with a husband's
foreplay with wife, or touching her body with his own until ejaculation. Similarly, it is
not prohibited for the wife to handle the husband's organ until he ejaculates. These do
not constitute prohibited masturbation.
Question 807: Is it allowed for a bachelor
to masturbate if required by the doctor for a laboratory test of semen, and that is the
only way to extract it?
A: There is no problem if it is required
Question 808: Some medical centers require
a man to masturbate for sperm tests to determine whether he can have children or not. Is
this masturbation permissible?
A: Masturbation is prohibited by Islamic
law, even if it is done to determine fertility, except when it is required for diagnosing
the illness causing infertility.
Question 809: Is it permissible to bring
out the semen by stimulating the prostate gland by one's own finger through the anal
passage so that semen is discharged without an orgasm and without causing bodily weakness?
A: The above-mentioned method is not
permissible, as it is one of the instances of unlawful masturbation.
Question 810: Is it permissible for a
husband away from his wife to picture her in his fantasy for sexual excitement?
A: If sexual fantasies are meant to lead
to ejaculation, or if one knows that it would eventually lead to it, then it is not
Question 811: Someone at the beginning of
his age of taklif fasts during the month of Ramazan, and masturbates while fasting,
continuing in this way for some days without knowing that fasting requires obtaining
taharah from janabah. Is it sufficient for him to perform the qaza' of the fasts of those
days, or some other rule applies to him?
A: In the light of the question, he has to
perform both, the qaza' as well as the kaffarah.
Question 812: If someone who is fasting
looks at a sexually arousing scene during the month of Ramazan, does it void his fast?
A: If he looks with the purpose of
experiencing an orgasm, or if he knows that it will cause him to become junub, and it had
been his habit before, and still he views it intentionally and becomes junub, then the
rule that applies to him is the one that applies to someone who makes himself junub
Question 813: Is it permissible to follow
the Ahl al-Sunnah in their timings for breaking the fast while one is in public or
attending official gatherings and the like? What is one's duty if he thinks that doing so
cannot be counted as one of the instances of taqiyyah and no compulsion is involved?
A: It is not permissible for a mukallaf to
follow others in determining the time for breaking the fast. He may not break the fast
voluntarily, and without lawful evidence, without ascertaining to his satisfaction that
nightfall has occurred and the day has ended.
Question 814: When I was fasting, my
mother forced me to eat or drink. Did it invalidate my fast?
A: Eating and drinking invalidates fast,
even if it is done at the request or insistence of someone.
Question 815: If something is forced into
the mouth of someone fasting, or his head is forcefully submerged in water, does it
invalidate the fast? What if one is coerced to break his fast, and he does it to avoid the
danger, for instance if he is told : If you do not eat, we will hurt you or your property.
Is his fast valid?
A: Forcing food into someone's mouth
without his consent does not invalidate his fast, neither does submerging his head in
water. However, if one breaks the fast himself when forced or threatened by someone, his
fast becomes void.
Question 816: While going on a trip
someone who is fasting breaks his fast before crossing the limit of tarakhkhus with the
notion that he is a traveler, without knowing that he may break his fast before noon only
when he has gone beyond the tarakhkhus limit. What is the rule concerning his fast ?Does
he have to perform its qaza' or is he liable to something else as well?
A: The rule that applies to him is same as
that for one who intentionally breaks the fast.
Question 817: While suffering from a cold,
some mucus gathered in my mouth and I swallowed it instead of spitting it out. Was my fast
valid? Also, once while staying for some days with one of my relatives during the blessed
month of Ramazan as I had a cold and moreover felt shy to perform janabah bath I did
tayammum instead of ghusl, which I did not perform until some time before noon. This
happened for several days. Were my fasts of those days valid? If not, do I have to give
the kaffarah as well?
A: Swallowing the phlegm and mucus does
not make one liable to anything, though as per precaution one should perform qaza' of that
fast if it is done after the mucus enters the mouth. As for your omitting to perform the
janabah bath before the dawn, if the substitute tayammum was done due to some shar'i
excuse or done at the last moment due to shortness of time, then your fasts are valid.
Otherwise your fasts of those days are void.
Question 818: I work in an iron ore mine
and the nature of my work requires me to enter the mine daily and work inside. While
working with mining equipment dust enters my mouth. This is my daily routine throughout
the year. What is my duty? Is my fast valid?
A: Swallowing dust invalidates the fast.
Therefore, one must guard against it. However, the mere entering of dust into the mouth
and the nose without its being swallowed does not void the fast.
Question 819: Is a person who is fasting
allowed to take an injection that contains vitamins and nutritive substances?
A: If an injection containing nutritive
substances is intravenous, it is better to avoid it as per precaution, and to perform the
qaza' for the fast of the day it was taken.
Question 820: While fasting during the
holy month of Ramazan a person did something that he thought invalidates his fast.
However, after Ramazan he realized that it was not so. What is the ruling concerning his
A: If he did not intend to violate the
fast and did not do anything that actually voids the fast, then his fast is valid.
Question 821: Is it sufficient to give a
needy person the money to buy one mudd (750 grams ) nf food instead of giving him the food
A: If you are sure that the needy person
receiving the money will buy the food on your behalf and then take it as kaffarah, there
is no problem in it.
Question 822: A person was appointed to
take charge of feeding a group of needy persons. Can he take his wages for the work and
cooking he does from the kaffarah money he was entrusted with?
A: He can demand the wages for his work
and for the cooking. But he cannot take it from the kaffarah.
Question 823: A woman could not fast due
to pregnancy and the approaching delivery. She knew that after delivery she must perform
qaza' for the days she did fast before the next Ramazan, If she did not fast after
delivery, intentionally or otherwise, for several years, does she have to pay only the
kaffarah for that year or for all the years she delayed the fasting?
A: The fidyah for delaying the qaza' ,
even if it is for several years, is required only once. It is one mudd (750 grams) of food
for each day, and is required only if the qaza' was delayed until another Ramazan without
any legitimate excuse. If one had an excuse for the delay preventing one from performing
valid fasts, no fidyah is required.
Question 824: A women could not fast due
to illness. Also, she could not perform their qaza' until the next Ramazan. Does she or
her husband have to pay kaffarah?
A: In this case, the fidyah, a mudd for
each fast, has to be given by her, not her husband.
Question 825: A person was liable to
perform qaza' of ten Ramazan fasts and he started keeping them on 20th of sha'ban. Can he
break the fast intentionally before or after the noon? And, if he does, what is the
kaffarah for breaking it before or after the noon?
A: It is not permissible for him to break
his fast intentionally in this case. However, if he does break his fast intentionally
before noon, he does not have to pay any kaffarah. But if he breaks it intentionally in
the afternoon, his kaffarah is to feed ten needy persons. If he cannot afford to do so, he
shall fast for three days.
Question 826: A woman was pregnant during
two consecutive Ramazan and could not fast during those two years. Now, when she is able
to fast what is her duty. Does she only have to perform the qaza'7 for the two months, or
does she have to carry out the twofold kaffarah as well? What is the rule concerning her
delaying the fasts?
A: If she did not fast during the month of
Ramazan due to a legitimate reason, then she is only liable for their qaza'. However, if
she did not fast because she feared it might harm the fetus or the baby, she has to give
the fidyah, a mudd of food for each day, in addition to making their qaza'. And if she
delays the qaza' beyond the Ramazan until the following Ramazan without a legitimate
excuse, then she shall also give its fidyah, a mudd of food for each day.
Question 827: If someone has to perform
qaza' and give kaffarah for the days that he did not fast, must he observe their sequence?
A: It is not obligatory.
Making Up For
Question 828: Due to a journey made for an
important religious mission, I became liable to qaza' of 18 days of Ramazan. What is my
duty? Is it obligatory for me to perform qaza' of the missed fasts?
A: You must perform qaza' of the Ramazan
fasts missed due to traveling.
Question 829: A person was hired to
perform qaza' fasts of the month of Ramazan for somebody else, and he breaks the fast in
the afternoon. Does he have to pay the kaffarah?
A: No kaffarah is required.
Question 830: Those who could not fast due
to their journey for religious missions during the month of Ramazan, and now want to make
up after years of delay, do they have to pay any kaffarah?
A: If delaying the qaza' of the fasts of
Ramazan until the next Ramazan was due to a continuing legitimate excuse, then they should
perform only the qaza' of the fasts missed and no fidyah is required, although precaution
lies in giving fidyah as well. But, if the delay was for no legitimate reason and a result
of negligence, then they are liable both to their qaza' as well as fidyah.
Question 831: A person did not perform
prayers or fast for about 10 years due to ignorance. Now he has repented, turning to God,
the Exalted, and decided to compensate for his past. But he cannot perform qaza' of all
the days he did not fast, nor has the means to pay for the kaffarah. Is it enough for him
to ask for forgiveness alone?
A: He is not relieved from the duty of
performing qaza' of the missed fasts by any means. As to the kaffarah for each day that he
did not fast , if he is not able to fast for 60 days and also unable to feed 60 needy
persons, he must give as much as he can to the poor.
Question 832: What is the duty of a person
who did not know that performing qaza' of missed fasts is required before the next
Ramazan, and so did not do it?
A: Ignorance of the obligation to perform
qaza' before next Ramazan does not relieve one of the fidyah for the delay.
Question 833: A person did not fast for
120 days. What must he do? Does he have to fast for 60 days for every day missed, and does
he have to pay kaffarah?
A: He has to perform qaza' for the Ramazan
fasts he missed. If he broke the fasts intentionally and not for some legitimate reason,
then he has, in addition to performing their qaza' , to pay the kaffarah, which is fasting
for sixty days or feeding 60 needy persons, or giving one mudd of food to each of the
Question 834: I fasted almost for one
month with the intention of carrying out qaza' of any fast that I might have missed, or to
be counted as a means of nearness to God. Does this month of fasting count as qaza' for
the fasts that I missed?
A: If you fasted with the intention of
carrying out whatever counts as your present duty, an obligatory or a recommended fast, it
would be counted as qaza' of the fasts missed if you were liable to any.
Question 835: If a person, not knowing the
number of fasts missed, performs fasts with the intention of mustahabb fast with the
belief that he is not liable to any qaza', does this fasting count as qaza' for missed
fasts if he is liable to qaza' of some fasts?
A: The fasts kept with the intention of
recommended fasting do not count as qaza' for fasts whose, qaza' one is liable to perform.
Question 836: If due to ignorance of the
rules a person intentionally breaks his fast due to hunger, does he only have to perform
qaza' of the fast or should he pay the kaffarah as well?
A: If his ignorance was due to negligence,
then as per precaution he should pay kaffarah in addition to performing its qaza' as well.
Question 837: A person at the outset of
the age of taklif was not able to fast due to physical weakness and inability. Is it
enough for him to perform the qaza' of the fasts, or is he required to offer the kaffarah
A: If fasting was not harmful for him when
he did not fast intentionally, then he has to offer qaza' as well as the kaffarah.
Question 838: A person does not know the
exact number of days he has failed to fast in the past nor the prayers he missed. What
should he do? And what rule applies if he does not know whether be missed the fast
intentionally or due to a legitimate excuse?
A: It is permissible for him to confine to
performing the qaza' of the prayers and fasts he is sure of having missed. When there is
doubt as to whether the fast was broken intentionally or not, kaffarah is not required.
Question 839: A person fasting during
Ramazan did not wake up one day to eat the meal taken before the dawn. Therefore, he could
not continue fasting until sunset. During the day there happened an event that caused him
to break his fast. Does he have to give the single or the twofold kaffarah?
A: If he kept the fast until the time he
broke it when it was harmful for him to continue, due to severe hunger and thirst or some
other reason, he has only to perform qaza' of the fast and no kaffarah is required.
Question 840: If one is not sure whether
one has done qaza' of all the missed fasts, what is one's duty?
A: If one is sure of having missed some
fasts in the past then it is obligatory to ascertain that one has done qaza' for those
Question 841: A person did not fast on
reaching puberty. He would fast for 11 days then break the fast one day at noon and would
not fast for the remaining 18 days. Also, he did not know that kaffarah was obligatory for
the days not fasted. What is the ruling concerning him?
A: If he intentionally and voluntarily
failed to fast in the month of Ramazan, he has to perform qaza' and pay kaffarah as well,
regardless of whether he knew he had to give a kaffarah or not.
Question 842: A patient was told by the
physician that fasting is harmful for his health. However, after a few years, he realized
that fasting was not harmful for him and the physician was wrong in excusing him from
fasting. Does he have to pay kaffarah in addition to performing qaza'?
A: If had he had refrained from fasting
due to fear for his health on the basis of an experienced and reliable physician's
diagnosis or some other reasonable basis, he has to only perform qaza' of the missed
Question 843: If a woman's periods start
while she is performing a fast that she had vowed to perform on a specific day, what
should she do?
A: Her fast is voided by the menses, and
she has to perform its qaza' after she is clean again.
Question 844: A person who lives in the
port of Dayyir kept fast from the first day of Ramazan until the twenty-seventh. On the
morning of the twenty-eighth day he traveled to Dubai. Arriving there on the twenty-ninth,
he noticed that they had declared that day as the first of Shawwal and Id al-Fitr there.
Now that has returned to his hometown, does he have to make up for the fast he missed? If
he does qaza' of only one day then the month of Ramazan for him will be only twenty-eight
days, and if he makes up for two days, then on the 29th day he was present in a place
where id was declared. What is the ruling for such a person?
A: If the twenty-ninth day of Ramazan was
declared id in accordance with valid shar'I criteria, then he does not have to perform
qaza' for that day. But it indicates that he missed fasts at the month's beginning, which
he has to make up, the number he is sure of having missed.
Question 845: A person finished his fast
in his hometown after sunset. Then on traveling to another city, he found that the sun
there had not set yet. What will be the rule regarding his fasting? Can he eat and drink
in the new place before sunset?
A: His fast is valid. He can eat and drink
in the new place before sunset.
Question 846: A martyr had made a will to
a friend asking qaza' of some fasts to be performed on his behalf for the sake of
precaution. However, the martyr's heirs do not give significance to such issues and it is
not possible to put the matter before them. Moreover, fasting would involve hardship for
that friend. Is there any other solution?
A: If he martyr had made a will to his
friend, asking him to fast on the martyr's behalf himself, the martyr's heirs do not have
any obligation in this regard. If it is too difficult for the friend to fast, he also does
not have any obligation.
Question 847: I am obsessed by doubts, or
to put it precisely, am kathir al-waswasah [ excessively obsessed ], especially in
religious the last Ramazan, I had a doubt whether I had swallowed some thick dust that had
entered my mouth and whether I had spitted out water that I had drawn into my mouth? Is my
A: In light of your question, your fast is
valid. Such doubts as these have no significance.
Question 848: Is the Kisa' tradition,
which is narrated from Fatimah Zahra' (a), a reliable tradition? Is it permissible to
attribute it to her during fasting?
A: If the tradition is cited with
reference to books where it has been reported, there is no problem in it.
Question 849: I have heard from scholars
and laymen that if a person performing a mustahabb fast is invited to eat something, he
can accept the invitation, and eating and drinking does not invalidate his fast nor
deprive him of its thawab [reward]. Please express your view on the matter.
A: Accepting a believer's invitation is
preferred by Islamic law over a mustahabb fast, and although eating and drinking breaks
the fast, but it does not deprive one of the reward for fasting.
Question 850: There are certain
supplications for the month of Ramazan each of which is specified for a day in a sequence,
starting with the supplication for the first day, followed by the one for the second day
and so on. What is the rule on reciting them if there is a doubt as to their authenticity?
A: There is no problem in reciting them
with the intent of raja' al-matlibiyyah [hope of desirability ].
Question 851: A person intending to fast
does not rise to eat sahur [dawn meal] before dawn. Therefore he could not fast the
following day. Does the guilt for not fasting fall on him or on someone who did not wake
him up? Also, if one fasts without eating sahur, is his fast valid?
A: Breaking the fast due to inability to
fast, even if due to not eating sahur, is not a sin. In any case others who did not wake
you up are not liable to anything. Also, fasting without eating sahur is valid.
Question 852: If a person is in i'tikaf
[confinement in a mosque for three or more days ] in Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, what rule
applies to his fasting on the third day?
A: If he is a traveler and has intended a
ten-day stay in Mecca or has vowed to fast while traveling, then after fasting for two
days he must complete the i'tikaf by fasting on the third day. However, if he didn't make
the intent of iqamah nor did he vow to fast while traveling, it is not valid for him to
fast while traveling. And as the fast is invalid, i'tikaf will also become invalid.
Question 853: As you know, one of the
following three conditions occurs at the beginning or end of the each month:
The crescent sets before the sunset;
The crescent sets along with sunset; or
The crescent sets after the sunset.
Please clear the following matters:
First, which one of the three above-mentioned conditions would be considered the beginning
of the month according to Islamic law? Second, if we take into consideration that these
three conditions are accounted for in the farthest places of the world using accurate
calculations, is it possible to benefit from these computations to figure out the
beginning of the month in advance, or it is necessary to observe it with the naked eye?
A: The basis of determining the beginning
of the month is the crescent that sets after sunset, which can be observed before sunset
using the customary means.
Question 854: If the crescent marking the
beginning of Shawwal is not observed in a city by the local people, and if the radio or
television announces the beginning of Shawwal, should the local people act upon the radio
announcement, or should they ascertain by investigating whether Shawwal has commenced?
A: If the radio or television announcement
makes them feel sure that Shawwal has commenced, or if there is a decree by the supreme
religious authority [wali faqih ]announcing the beginning of Shawwal, then there is no
need for investigating further.
Question 855: If it is difficult to
ascertain the beginning of the month of Ramazan, or the Id al-Fitr, because of the
inability to observe the crescent at the beginning of the month due to clouds or for some
other reason, and if the count of the month of Sha'ban or the month of Ramazan did not add
up to 30 days, is it permissible for us in Japan to go by the horizon in Iran or should we
rely on the regular calendar? What is the rule?
A: If the crescent has not been
ascertained by being sighted in the city and in the regions at the same longitude, or on
the evidence of two just witnesses, or on the basis of a decree by a religious authority
announcing the end of Ramazan, it is obligatory to observe precaution by ascertaining the
beginning of Shawwal. The sighting of the crescent in Iran, which is to the west of Japan,
cannot be a basis regarding the beginning of Shawwal for one residing in Japan.
Question 856: Is the sameness of horizon
considered to be a condition in regards to observing the crescent?
A: It is enough for the crescent to be
sighted in the areas on the same horizon, or nearby, or in the areas to the east.
Question 857: What is meant by sameness of
A: When certain areas are located on the
same longitude they are said to share the same horizon.
Question 858: If the twenty-ninth day of
the month was the day of Id al-Fitr in Tehran and Khorasan, is it permissible for the
residents of areas like Bushehr to break their fast too, though the horizon of Tehran and
Khorasan differs from the horizon of Bushehr?
A: If the difference between the longitude
of two cities is such that the new moon cannot be seen in one of them when sighted in the
other, its sighting in the city located to the west of the other is not sufficient for the
residents of the city to the east, where the sun sets earlier than in the city to the
west, and is sufficient when the case is the reverse.
Question 859: If the Islamic scholars of a
city differ regarding the end of Ramazan, and one considers all of them to be just and
precise in their investigations, what is the duty of the city's inhabitants?
A: If the difference between the two
testimonies is one of contradiction, in the sense that one of them claims the crescent to
have been sighted and the other claims that it has not been sighted, the duty of the
inhabitants is to decide the matter through other means. However, if the first group
testifies to the sighting of the new moon, but the second group does not claim to have
seen it, the inhabitants have to accept the view of the first group and break their fasts.
Also, the people have to follow if a religious authority [hakim al-shar'] issues a decree
announcing the end of Ramazan.
Question 860: If a person who sees the new
moon knows that the city's religious authority is not able to see the crescent for some
reason, is it his duty to inform the religious authority that he has observed the
A: It is not his duty to do so, unless his
not doing so can cause some trouble [fitnah].
Question 861: As you know, most Islamic
scholars have written in their risalahs that the beginning of Shawwal can be proved only
through five methods. However, announcement of the end of Ramazan by a religious authority
is not among those methods. Such being the case, how can most of the people break their
fasts when the beginning of Shawwal has been ascertained by the major marja's? What is the
duty of a person who is not convinced of the new moon's sighting by such means?
A: Unless a religious authority issues a
decree announcing the sighting of the new moon, the mere ascertaining of it by him is not
sufficient for others to follow him, unless they are convinced thereby of the end of
Question 862: If the Leader [wali al-amr ]
of Muslims issues a decree announcing the next day as Id al-Fitr and the media report that
the crescent has been cited in certain cities, does it determine the id for all the cities
or only those cities and for others on the same longitudes?
A: If the decree issued by the religious
authority includes all the cities, it is valid for all of them.
Question 863: If on the evening of Id
al-Fitr, the moon appears as a very fine crescent, does it mean that the next day is the
first of Shawwal and that the id was declared by mistake? Is one required to perform qaza'
for the last day of Ramazan?
A: The thinness or thickness of the moon
and also its position in the sky are not lawful evidence in deciding the first or second
of a month. But if it brings conviction to the mukallaf, he is obliged to act in
accordance with his knowledge in this case.
Question 864: Can the night of the full
moon, which is the fourteenth night of the month, be taken as a reliable basis for
calculating the first day of the month so as to determine whether the Day of Doubt is the
thirtieth of Ramazan, for example, so that whoever did not fast on that day may have
evidence concerning the necessity to perform qaza' for the thirtieth day of Ramazan and
whoever fasted that day, considering Ramazan to continue, may know that he is free of
A: That which has been mentioned does not
constitute lawful evidence for anything mentioned. But if it brings knowledge to the
mukallaf, his obligation is to act in accordance with his knowledge.
Question 865: Is watching out for the new
moon a kifa'i [collective ] obligation or something to be done as an obligatory
A: It is not a shar'i duty in itself.
Question 866: Are the beginning and end of
Ramazan determined through observing the crescent or by the means of the calendar, even if
Sha'ban was not thirty days?
A: Deciding the beginning of any lunar
month is only possible through one of the following methods:
sighting the new moon by the mukallaf himself;
the testimony of two just witnesses to that effect;
numerous reports that bring conviction that the moon has been sighted; or
completion of 30 days since the month's beginning;
the decree of a religious authority.
Question 867: If a government announces
the end of Ramazan, is it necessary for it to be an Islamic one in order to ascertain that
the moon has really been sighted, or can one accept it even from a tyrannical government?
A: The criterion in this regard is the
mukallaf's assurance that the new moon has been sighted in the area where its sighting is
sufficient in relation to the mukallaf.