Question No. 350 - 746  
     
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PRAYERS [ SALAT ]

Importance and Conditions of Prayers

Question 350: What is the rule concerning a person who intentionally refrains from performing prayers or someone who belittles prayers?

A: The five daily obligatory prayers [farizahs ] are among the very important obligations in Islamic law ; rather, they constitute the pillar of the faith. According to Islamic law, forsaking their performance or belittling them are forbidden and entail deservingness for punishment.

Question 351: Is performing prayers obligatory on a person who lacks both of the purifiers [ tahurs: water and soil ]?

A: Ada'* is not obligatory, though it is closer to precaution. The more precautions rule is the obligatoriness of qaza'.

Question 352: In your esteemed opinion, what are the instances for udul[changing intent ] during obligatory prayers?

A: Udul is obligatory in the following instances :
- From asr [afternoon] to zuhr [noon] prayers, when one recognizes during the prayers that one has not performed the zuhr.
- From isha' to maghrib, when one notices during the prayers, and before passing the point of udul, that one has not performed the maghrib.
-When one is obliged to perform two qaza' prayers that are to be performed in order, but forgetfully begins with the latter before performing the former.
Udul is commendable[mustahabb] in the following cases :
-From ada' to obligatory qaza' provided that doing so does not lead to the expiration of ada's prime time [fazilah].
-From an obligatory prayers to a recommended [mustahabb] one for the purpose of joining group [jama'ah ] prayers.
-From obligatory prayers to nafilah at Friday's noon by a person who forgot to recite the Jumu'ah chapter and is reading another chapter of which he has either recited half or more. Thus, it is recommended that he turn from obligatory prayers to nafilah so that he may repeat the obligatory prayers including the Jumu'ah chapter.

* Ada' means punctual accomplishment of a religious duty with all of its requirements.

Question 353: Which one of the following should be done by a person who wants to perform both Friday [jumu'ah] and zuhr prayers qurbah [nearness to God] intent [niyyah] without intending their wujub [obligatoriness], offers the first with both qurbah and wujub intents and the second with qurbah intent only, or performs both with qurbah as well as wujub intents?

A: Performing each of them with the qurbah intent suffices and it is not obligatory to intend wujub in any of them.

Question 354: If the mouth or the nose keep bleeding from when the time of an obligatory prayers begins until it is about to end, what will be the prayers' rule?

A: If one is unable to clean one's body and fears the expiration of the time of the obligatory prayers, he can perform that prayers in that state.

Question 355: Should the body stand still completely while reciting the recommended zikrs[recitals] of prayers?

A: There is no difference between obligatory and recommended zikrs as far as the obligatoriness of stillness and calmness during prayers is concerned.

Question 356: A catheter is put into the body of some patients in hospitals to take out the urine. When the catheter is in place the urine comes out of patient's body unintentionally, whether the patient is asleep or awake or is performing prayers. In light of this, please answer the following question: Is it obligatory on him to repeat the prayers later, or does the prayers performed in such a condition suffice?

A: His prayers is valid in case that he performed his prayers in such a condition in accordance with his shar'i duty, and it is not obligatory on him to repeat it or perform its qaza'.

Question 357: Are the prayers that I performed with recommended baths [ghusls] and without wuzu' valid?

A: If you performed them in a way that accords with the verdict of the marja' whom you believed to be obliged by Islamic law to follow, they are ruled to be valid.

Prayers' Times

Question 358: What is the proof on which Shi''ah relies concerning the times of daily obligatory prayers? As you know, Sunnis prayers is qaza' during that time; and so is the case with zuhr and asr prayers.Accordingly, they believe that when the time of isha' prayers begins and the imam stands up to perform it, the ma'mum[the person who perform prayers behind the imam] may not perform maghrib prayers with him in order to perform both prayers side by side.

A: The proof is represented by the generality of Qur'anic verses and the noble Sunnah in addition to the traditions which specifically indicate the permissibility of performing such prayers together, given that Sunnis also have some traditions that prove the permissibility of performing the two prayers during the time of one of them.

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Question 360: How many minutes is the time gap between sunset and the time for the azan of maghrib?

A: Apparently, it varies with the change of the seasons of the year.

Question 361: Since I work until late at night I cannot return home before 11 p.m. and it is not possible for me to perform maghrib and isha' prayers during my work due to the large number of clients. Is it correct to perform maghrib and isha' prayers after 11 p.m.?

A: There is no problem in it insofar as it does not entail their postponement beyond midnight. But try to perform them no later than 11p.m., and moreover, to offer prayers as soon as its time begins.

Question 362: How much of the prayers is it that if performed during ist ada' time, the ada' intent[niyyah] will be realized correctly? And what is the rule in the case of doubt as to whether that portion has been performed within the time or not?

A: Performing a single rak'ah of the prayers at the end of its time is sufficient for considering it as ada', and if you doubt whether the time is enough for performing at least a rak'ah or not, your duty will be to perform the prayers with the niyyah of carrying out your obligation [ma fi al-zimmah] and not to make either of ada' or qaza' intents.

Question 363: The embassies and consulates of the Islamic Republic of Iran based in non-Islamic countries have prepared a timetable for the designation of shar'i times in major areas and cities. My question is first, to what extent are these timetables reliable? and second, what should be done in other cities of those countries?

A: The criterion is the certaintyof the mukallaf, and if he is not convinced about the correspondence of these timetables with reality, it will be obligatory on him to observe precaution and wait till he is sure that the shar'i time has set in.

Question 364: What is your opinion on the issue of al-Fajr al-Sadiq [the true daybreak] and al-Fajr al-Kazib [the false daybreak]? What is the duty of the praying person in this regard?

A: The shar'i criterion with respect to the time of praying and fasting is al-Fajr al-Sadiq, and its determination is the task of the mukallaf.

Question 365: In a full-time secondary school, the authorities conduct zuhr and the asr prayers in jama'ah[group] at 2 p.m., shortly before the start of the afternoon classes. The reason for the delay is that the morning session ends three quarters of an hour before the shar'i noon and keeping students till the shar'i noon is difficult. Having this in mind, what is your esteemed opinion, given the importance of performing prayers at the beginning of its time?

A: There is no problem in delaying group prayers so that those who want to perform prayers could gather assuming they are not present in the school when prayers' time begins.

Question 366: Is it obligatory to perform zuhr prayers after the azan of zuhr and asr prayers when its time has arrived, and to do the same with respect to maghrib and isha' prayers?

A: After the time arrives, the mukallaf has the option to perform the two prayers either together or separately.

Question 367: Is it obligatory to wait for 15 to 20 minutes for performing subh prayers during moonlit nights? given that the time of prayers has arrived and it is possible, then, to obtain certainty concerning the occurrence of the daybreak?

A: There is no difference between nights, moonlit or otherwise, as regards daybreak, the time of subh obligatory prayers, and the time of the obligatoriness of imsak[abstinence] for fasting, though it would be good to observe precaution in this regard.

Question 368: Is the amount of difference of the shar'i times of various provinces, which is caused by the difference of their horizons, the same with respect to the times of all three daily obligatory prayers? For example, suppose that the difference between the zuhr prayers' timings of two provinces is 25 minutes. Does this difference remain the same with respect to other timings and with the same amount? or does it vary for the timings of subh and isha' prayers?

A: The sole similarity of the amount of difference between them with respect to the occurrence of daybreak, or the descent[zawal] of the sun, or sunset does not necessarily imply similarity with regard to all the other timings. Rather, the amount of difference between various cities often differs in relation to the three praying times.

Question 369: Given that sunnis perform maghrib prayers before the shar'i sunset, is it permissible for us to perform prayers behind them during Hajj season and at other times and do these prayers suffice?

A: It is not certain that their performance of prayers before the outset of its time and joining them in their group prayers and performing prayers behind them do not involve any problem and is sufficient. Waiting until the specified time of prayers begins is necessary unless the time issue is also a case for taqiyyah [concealment].

Question 370: The sun rises in Denmark and Norway at 7 a.m. and keeps shining in the sky till when corresponds to 12 p.m. in other nearby countries. What is my obligation with respect to performing prayers and fasting?

A: It is obligatory to observe the particular horizon of that area as far as the timing of daily prayers are concerned. And if fasting causes harm, due to the extensive length of the day, it will cease to be obligatory as ada', and instead, it will be obligatory to perform it by way of qaza'.

Question 371: The sunlight reaches the earth in about 7 minutes. Which one is the criterion for determining the end of the time of subh prayers: sunrise or when the sunlight reaches the earth?

A: The criterion is the rise of the sun and its visibility on the local horizon of the praying person.

Question 372: Shar'i timing are announced in communications media a day before each day. Is it permissible to rely on these announcements and consider the broadcast or the telecast of azan as the basis for the arrival of prayers' time?

A: The criterion is that the mukallaf becomes sure about the beginning of the time.

Question 373: Does the time of prayers start as soon as azan begins to be recited, or is it obligatory to wait before starting the prayers till the azan is over? And is it permissible for a fasting person to do iftar[end his fast] as soon as azan begins or is it obligatory on him to wait till it ends?

A: If one is certain that the azan started when the time arrived, it will not be obligatory to wait till its end.

Question 374: Are the prayers of someone who has performed the second of two prayers before the first - such as the isha' before the maghrib -correct?

A: In case that he was doing so by mistake or unintentionally till he completed the prayers, then they are correct without any problem. But if he did so intentionally, then they are invalid.

Rules Of Qiblah

Qiblah is the point to which one should turn while performing prayers and is symbolized by the Ka'bah or the House of God located in Mecca.

Question 375: Please answer the following questions:

First, it is stated, based on some books of Islamic law, that the sun is exactly above the Ka'bah on two days: the 4th of Khordad [24 May ] and the 26th of tir [16th of July ]. In such a condition, is it possible to determine the direction of qiblah by fixing a pole[shakhis] in the ground at the time of azan in Mecca? In case that the direction of qiblah in the prayer niches[mihrab] of mosques differs from the direction of the pole's shadow, which one is more correct?

Second, is it correct to rely on a qiblah finder [compass]?

A: It is correct to rely on the shakhis or qiblah finder provided that it makes the mukallaf certain with respect to the direction of qiblah; a certainty which must be acted upon. Otherwise, there is no problem in relying on the niches of mosques or the graves of Muslims in determining the direction of qiblah.

Question 376: Is it correct to perform prayers in any direction in the course of a fierce battle when it is not possible to determine the direction of qiblah?

A: If there is time, one should perform prayers in four direction; otherwise one should repeat the prayers in as many directions as time allows.

Question 377: How should one face the qiblah at the point which is the opposite of the Holy Ka'bah on the other side of the earth such that the line drawn from the Holy Ka'bah passing through the centre of the earth comes out of the other side of the earth at this point?

A: The basis in the obligatory facing towards the qiblah [istiqbal] is to turn towards the Holy House [al-Bayt al-Atiq] on the surface of the earth in such a manner that someone who stands on the surface of the earth faces the Holy Ka'bah that is built upon the earth's surface in the dignified Mecca. Therefore, if one stands at a point on the earth where all the lines emanating from it and passing over the earth's surface towards the Holy Ka'bah are equal in distance, he can face the qiblah in any direction he wishes. But, if the distance is shorter in some directions by an amount in case of which the realization of facing varies according to the urf, it will be obligatory to choose the shorter distance.

Question 378: What should we do in a place where we do not know the direction of qiblah having no device to find it and the qiblah may possibly be in any of the four directions?

A: If the probability of qiblah being in each of the four directions is equal with respect to all of them, it will be obligatory to perform the prayers in all four directions so that one becomes certain that he has performed prayers facing the qiblah.

Question 379: How is the direction of qiblah determined? And how should prayers be performed in north and south poles?

A: The basis in determining the direction of qiblah in the two poles is to find the shortest line from the location of the praying person to the Ka'bah, and then, to face the qiblah along that line upon its designation.

Rules of the Place of Prayers

Question 380: Is one permitted to sit or perform prayers in, or pass through, places that are usurped by a tyrannical regime?

A: Assuming certainty about usurpation, the rule of such places will be the very rule of a usurped entity in terms of the impermissibility of utilization [tasarruf] and liability [zaman].

Question 381: What is the rule with respect to performing prayers on a land which used to be an endowment[waqf] in the past and the government has taken it over and built a school on it?

A: If there is a considerable probability that the said use of the land has been due to a shar'i permission, there will be no problem in performing prayers on it.

Question 382: I hold group prayers in a number of schools some of the lands of which were taken from their owners without their consent. What is the rule regarding the prayers which the students and I have performed in such schools?

A: If the usurpation of the land from its shar'i owner is not ascertained, there will not be any problem in the prayers.

Question 383: A person performed prayers, for a period of time, on a mat or in a dress out of which khums was to be paid. What is the state of these prayers?

A: If he was unaware of the fact that khums was to be paid out of such properties, or of the rule of using them, then the prayers which he performed would be considered valid.

Question 384: Is it true that men should be in front of women while performing prayers?

A: It is not obligatory, though it is better to observe precaution in this matter.

Question 385: What is the rule with respect to fixing the photographs of Imam Khomeini (q) and the martyrs of the Islamic Revolution in the mosques, given that Imam Khomeini (q) expressed his desire in not having his photographs fixed in the mosques and there is also a view that considers such an act makruh [undesirable but not forbidden]?

A: There is no shar'i obstacle to fixing their photographs in the mosques and if they are neither in the direction of qiblah nor in front of praying individuals, then there will be no karahah [undesirability ] in it either.

Question 386: A person has been living in a house owned by the government and after the term of his allotted residence is over, he is given a notice to vacate it. What is the rule pertaining to his prayers and fasting after the deadline fixed for its vacation expires?

A: If he is not allowed by the concerned authorities to reside in the house after the deadline, all of his operations in the house will be considered as acts of usurpation [ghasb].

Question 387: Is it makruh to perform prayers on a rug which has pictures on it or on a turbah with engravings?

@: Ht is not prohibited in htself, but hf ht provides an npportunity for those who always accuse shi'ah, it will be obligatory to refrain from manufacturing such products and performing prayers on them.

Question 388: Would our prayers be correct vhen the place where we perform prayers is not blean but the place of sujud [prostration ] is clean?

A: Hf the najasah [uncleanness] nf the place is such that ht does not make blothes nr body najis [unclean \ `nd the place of prostration is clean, there will be no problem hn performing prayers there.

Question 389: The present building of the office where we work used to be the site nf ` graveyard in the past. @bout forty years ago ht was abandoned and thirty years ago this building was constructed. Now, `ll the lands `round the office have been built on and there remains no sign of the graveyard. Please clarify whether it is correct for the employees to perform prayers in such an office from the viewpoint of Islamic law?

A: The use of such an office and performing prayers in it is allowed without any problem, unless it is proved through a shar'i method that the ground upon which this office has been built is an endowment for the burial of the dead.

Question 390: Some faithful youths have decided to hold prayers in parks on one or two days of the week for amr bil-ma'ruf [enjoining to good ] purposes. some respected and elderly people object that the ownership of such places is not clear. What is the ruling with regard to performing prayers in such places?

A: There is no problem in using present recreational parks for such activities as holding prayers, etc. The mere probability of usurpation should not be taken into consideration.

Question 391: The land of one of the primary schools in this city used to be the private property of a person. According to the city map of 'Hadishahr' it was announced that this land must be altered to a garden. Then, due to dire need, it was decided, with the approval of the Municipality, to change it into a school. The owner of the land is not happy with its takeover by the government and has made it public that he is not content that anybody performs such activities as prayers there. Please explain your esteemed opinion on the issue of performing prayers in this place?

A: If the ownership of the land was taken over from its legal owner according to a law passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly and approved by the Council of the Guardians of the Constitution *, there will be no problem in the activities carried out and the prayers performed in that place.

Question 392: There were in our city two adjacent mosques separated by a wall between them. Some time ago some believers removed a large part of that wall with the purpose of connecting the two mosques. This became the cause of doubt for some with respect to performing prayers in both mosques . They still continue to be in this state. please advise what is to be done in this case?

A: The destruction of the wall separating the two mosques does not cause any problem in performing prayers in them.

Question 393: There are some restaurants in public streets next to which there exist places for performing prayers. If one does not eat in those restaurants, will he be allowed to perform prayers in those places or does he have to seek permission from the owners of the restaurants?

A: If there is a probability that the place for performing prayers belongs to the owner of the restaurant and that the right to take advantage of it is exclusive to those who eat in that restaurant, it will be obligatory on him to ask for permission.

* Islamic Consultative Assembly and the Council of the Guardians of Constitution are two parliamentary organs of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Question 394: Will the prayers of a person be valid if he performs it on a usurped land while standing on a rug or a wooden board or something similar?

A: The prayers performed on a usurped land is invalid even if one stands on a rug or something else put on the land.

Question 395: In some companies and institutions being presently run under the supervision of government, there are some people who do not attend in group prayers held in them on the excuse that such places were taken over from their owners upon the orders of shar'i court. Please state your honored opinion on this matter?

A: Attending group prayers is not basically obligatory. Rather, everyone has the right to abstain from it for any reason whatsoever. As for the shar'i ruling with respect to the place is concerned, if the authority who issued the confiscation order probably enjoyed legal competence and did so according to religious and legal criteria, then his act will be considered legally valid, and therefore, it will be permissible to carry out every kind of activity in that place and the rules of usurpation do not apply to such a case.

Question 396: If there is a mosque next to a Husayniyyah, will it be correct to perform group prayers in the Husayniyyah and are the rewards of such prayers equal in both?

A: There is no doubt that the merit of performing prayers in the mosque is more than other places. But, there is no shar'i obstacle to performing group prayers in a Husayniyyah or in any other places.

Question 397: Is it correct to perform prayers in a place where forbidden music is being played?

A: If it entails listening to forbidden music, stopping there will not be permissible. However, performing prayers is considered valid and if the sound of the music distracts one's attention and concentration, performing prayers there will be makruh.

Question 398: What is the rule concerning the prayers of those who are sent on a mission in a boat when the time of prayers begins in such a way that if they do not pray then they will not be able to perform ht thereafter by way of ada' within the specified time?

A: In the mentioned condition it is obligatory on them to perform prayers inside the boat and in any possible way.

Rules of Mosque

Question 399: Given that performing prayers in one's local mosque is recommended, is there any problem in leaving the local mosque and going to the jami'[major or central] mosque of the city to perform group prayers?

A: There is no problem if one abstains from going to the local mosque in order to attend the group prayers of another mosque, particularly the jami' mosque of the city.

Question 400: What is the rule with regard to performing prayers in a mosque where some people who participated in its construction claim that they built it for themselves and their tribe?

A: After being built, a mosque does not belong to a specific nationality, family, tribe, or group of individuals but it is permissible for all Muslims to benefit from it.

Question 401: Is it more preferable for women to perform prayers in mosque or at home?

A: The advantage of performing prayers in mosque is not restricted to men.

Question 402: At present, there is a short wall between Masjid al-Haram and the area designated for sa'y[running] between Safa and Marwa. This wall measures half a meter high and one meter wide and is shared by both the Masjid and the sa'y area. Could women sit on this wall during their period when it is not permissible for them to enter Masjid al-Haram?

A: There will be no problem in doing so unless one becomes certain that the wall is a part of the mosque.

Question 403: Is one permitted to exercise or sleep in a local mosque? What is the rule of doing so in other mosques?

A: Mosque is not a place of exercise and sleeping there is makruh.

Question 404: Is it permissible to use the yard of the mosque for providing youngsters with intellectual, cultural, ideological and military (through military lessons ) awareness? And what is the shar'i rule of practicing these actions in the balcony of a mosque which is out of use? (taking into account the shortage of places designated for such purposes )

A: It depends on the conditions of the waqf [endowment] of the yard and balcony of the mosque and it is obligatory on you to seek the advise of the respected imam and supervisory board of the mosque in this regard, bearing in mind that the presence of the youth in mosques and setting up religious classes upon the permission of their Imams and boards is a desirable and recommended matter.

Question 405: In some areas, particularly in villages, people hold wedding ceremonies in mosques. That is, they perform all celebrations involving dance and music at home, but serve lunch or dinner in the mosque. Is this permitted by Islamic law?

A: There is no problem, in itself, in serving food to guests in mosque. However, holding marriage ceremonies in mosque is not appropriate to the status of the mosque in Islam, therefore, is not permissible. Committing such forbidden acts as listening to ghina' and corrupt, exhilarating music is absolutely prohibited.

Question 406: National cooperatives build residential areas and it is initially agreed upon that those areas include public places such as mosques. Now that residential units are prepared and submitted to company's shareholders, could some of them breach their agreement by saying that they are not content with building the mosque?

A: If the company builds the mosque upon obtaining the agreement of all of its members and after the mosque's construction and endowment is completed, some members' withdrawal of their previous agreement will have no effect. If, however, their change of mind occurs prior to the realization of the mosque's endowment, construction of the mosque using members' money on the land which belongs to all members without their consent will be impermissible, unless it is stated as a condition in the form of an irrevocable contract [aqd lazim] that a part of the land is allocated for the construction of the mosque and the members are committed to this condition -a case in which they will not be able to change their minds and their withdrawal will have no effect.

Question 407: In order to combat the non-Islamic cultural insult, we gathered in the mosque anout 30 students from elementary and high schools in the form of song bands. The members of these bands take lessons from the Qur'an, ahkam [the practical rules of Islam], and Islamic Ethics [akhlaq] proportionate to their ages and intellectual levels. What is the rule regarding such activities? And what is your ruling on playing a musical instrument called 'organ' by this band? And what is the rule of practicing on this instrument in the mosque while observing shar'i standards and the regulations which are enforced and prevail in the Radio and Television organizations and the Ministry of Islamic Guidance (in Iran)?

A: Confronting the cultural invasion and enjoining to good and forbidding from evil do not require making use of musical instruments, particularly in the mosque. Therefore, it is obligatory to show appropriate respect for the status of the mosque and that acts of worship and propagation of religious teachings and enlightening revolutionary ideas are conducted there.

Question 408: Is it allowed, according to Islamic law, to show the movies distributed by the Ministry of Islamic Guidance (in Iran) in the mosque for the people who come to Qur'anic programs?

A: It is not permissible to convert the mosque to a place for showing movies, but there is no problem in showing films occasionally when the need arises and pursuant to the opinion of the imam of the mosque.

Question 409: Is there any problem, according to Islamic law, to play exhilarating music from the mosque on the occasion of the birthdays of the infallible Imams (a)?

A: The mosque has obviously a distinguished status according to Islamic law . Therefore, if playing music is not appropriate to its status, it will be forbidden even if the music being played is not exhilarating.

Question 410: When is it permissible to use the loudspeakers that exist in mosques and the sound of which can be heard outside the mosques? And what is the ruling with respect to the relay of Qur'an and revolutionary songs prior to azan [call for prayers]?

A: There is no problem in relaying the recitation of the Holy Qur'an for a few minutes prior to azan when it does not cause discomfort and disturbance for neighbors and the residents of the area.

Question 411: How do you define the jami'mosque?

A: It is a mosque built in the city for the gathering of most of the residents of that city with no specificity to a particular tribe or people of a bazaar.

Question 412: A roofed mosque has been left vacant and no prayers has been performed there for the last thirty years. Now, it is transformed to a ruin and a part of it is used as storage. Recently, some repairs have been done in this mosque by the Basij [mobilization] forces which have been head quartered in its covered section since approximately 15 years ago. The reason for these repairs was the inappropriate condition of the building, especially that the roof was about to fall. Since the brothers in the Basij forces were unaware of the rules of mosque, and those who knew the rules did not guide them, those brothers built a number of rooms in a part of this section of the mosque spending large amounts of money on the project. Now that construction operations are near completion, we would be grateful if you clarify the shar'i rule concerning the following matters:
1. Assuming that those in charge of this project and the members of the supervisory board were unaware of the rule, are they considered responsible, according to shar', with respect to expenditures out of bayt al-mal [Muslims' treasury]? And are they sinners or not?
2. Given that the expenditures were out of bayt al-mal, would you allow-as long as the mosque does not need this part and no prayers is performed there-that these rooms are used, in complete compliance with shar'i rules and restrictions concerning a mosque, for educational purposes like teaching the Holy Qur'an and ahkam, and also in the affairs of the mosque? Or is it obligatory to destroy those rooms?

A: It is obligatory on them to restore the covered part of the mosque to its original condition by demolishing the rooms which were built in it. With regards to the expenditures, it is not certain whether anyone is responsible for them as long as there was no extravagance and wastefulness, and wantonness and negligence. There is no problem in using the roofed section of the mosque for holding classes of the Holy Qur'an, ahkam, and Islamic ideology and engaging in other religious ceremonies as long as such activities do not disturb those who are performing prayers and are held under the supervision of the imam of the mosque. The imam, the Basij forces, and other persons in charge of the mosque should cooperate to preserve the existence of Basij forces in the mosque as well as to prevent any disorder in the way the mosque should fulfil its worship related duties such as prayers, etc.

Question 413: Several mosques are located inside the area covered by a road widening project insofar as it has become necessary to demolish some of these mosques completely and some others partially in order to facilitate the traffic of motor vehicles. Please clarify your esteemed opinion in this regard.

A: It is not permissible to demolish a mosque or q part of it except when there is a specific exigency [maslahat] which cannot be neglected and ignored.

Question 414: Is it permissible for people to make personal use of a small quantity of a mosque's water, which is specifically there for performing wuzu'. For example, could shopkeepers use it for drinking cold water or making tea or for their cars, given that the mosque has no single creator of endowment [waqif] who can obstruct people from doing so?

A: If it is not known that the mosque's water is specifically endowed to be used for wuzu' by those who want to perform prayers, and the prevalent understanding in the mosque's area is that the neighbors of the mosque and passers may use such a water, there will be no problem in it, although it is recommended to observe precaution in this regard.

Question 415: There is a mosque near a graveyard. When some believers come to pay a visit to the graves of their dead, they take water from the mosque to pour over the gravestones. We do not know whether this water was endowed for the mosque or it may be subject to general use. Assuming that we know that the water was not endowed for the mosque but allocated for use in wuzu' and in toilet, will it be permissible to use the water in the said way?

A: There will be no problem in taking water from the mosque for pouring over the gravestones if it is commonly practiced, and is not detested, by the people and there is no evidence suggesting that the endowment was specifically for wuzu' or for wuzu' and cleaning [tathir] only.

Question 416: Is the permission of the Hakim al-Shar'* or his deputy required when a mosque needs to be repaired?

A: For the voluntary repair of a mosque-spending one's own money or the money of charitable contributors-there is no need to acquire any permission from the Hakim al-Shar'.

Question 417: Is it permissible for me to determine by will [wasiyyah] that I should be buried in the local mosque to which I have had some contributions? That is because I would like to be buried in that mosque, whether inside it or in its yard.

A: If the burial of a dead is not excepted at the time of pronouncing the formula [sighah] of the endowment, it will not be permissible to bury him there, and therefore, your will in this regard will have no validity.

Question 418: A mosque was constructed about 20 years ago and decorated with the lovely name of 'Sahib al-Zaman,' may Allah hasten his reappearance. Given that it is not known whether this name was mentioned in the endowment formula of the mosque, what is the rule of changing the mosque's name from 'Sahib al-Zaman' to jami' mosque?

A: There is no problem in the mere change of the mosque's name.

Question 419: It has been conventional in local mosques since the old times that people give them donations [nuzurat] so that they could be used for meeting the needs of the mosques during the months of Muharram, Safar, and Ramazan and other Days of God the Exalted. Recently, the mosques have been equipped with electricity and air conditioners. Whenever one of the area's residents dies, a Fatihah service is held for him in the mosque and the mosque's electricity and air conditioner are used during the service but the organizers do not pay anything towards the expenses of such usage. Is this permissible according to Islamic law?

A: The permissibility of using the facilities of the mosque for special mourning events and the like is dependent on the conditions of the endowment or donation vow[nazr] of those facilities for the mosque.

Question 420: There is a newly built mosque in a village(on a land where the old mosque stood). Due to the lack of knowledge, a room was constructed for making tea at the corner of this mosque, the land of which was a part of the old mosque. Furthermore, a library was built on the rooftop of the terrace which exists inside the mosque. Please express Your Honor's opinion on this matter and also the completion of, and how to use, the interior half of the building?

A: Building a tea room on the land of the old mosque is not correct and it is obligatory to restore that place to the status of being a mosque. The same rule applies to both the rooftop of the mosque and the mosque itself and all rules and legal effects pertaining to the mosque also apply to its rooftop. However, there will be no problem in setting up book cases there and being there for the purpose of reading books if such things do not disturb praying persons.

Question 421: In a village, there is a mosque in a ruination state. Since this mosque is not an obstruction to any path or route, there is no justification for demolishing it. Is it permissible to demolish this mosque completely? Besides, this mosque has a certain amount of property along with some money. Whom these things should be given to?

A: It is not permissible to demolish and destroy a mosque. Generally speaking, a mosque does not cease to be a mosque merely due to ruination. As for the assets of the mosque, if there is no need for using them there, there will be no problem in transferring them to other mosques so that they are used.

Question 422: Is it permissible, according to Islamic law, to build a museum in a corner of the yard of a mosque without interfering with the mosque's building itself, just like a library that constitutes a part of the mosque's construction at the time being?

A: It will not be permissible to build a museum or a library in a corner of the mosque's yard if it is against the specifics of the endowment of the mosque's hall or results in a change of the mosque's building. It is preferred that you build another place adjacent to the mosque for the said purpose.

Question 423: There is an endowed place where a mosque, a school for Islamic studies, and a library are built and all of them are currently operational. This place is a part of the map of the places which are to be demolished by the municipality. How could we cooperate with the municipality for the destruction of these places and obtain facilitates from them for building better places?

A: If the municipality demolishes the said places and pays their value[iwaz], there will be no problem in receiving the payment. However, demolishing an endowed mosque or school is not permissible unless there is a significant exigency.

Question 424: In order to improve the jami' mosque here, it has become necessary to cut down some of the trees which exist in its yard. Given that the mosque's yard is quite big and it has numerous trees, is it permissible to do so?

A: There will be no problem in it if there is a need to expand the mosque and appending the yard to the mosque itself and cutting the trees are not considered an alteration in the endowment.

Question 425: What is the ruling with regards to the land which was originally a part of the roofed section of a mosque but was altered to a street after the mosque was included in the municipality's development program and a part of it was demolished due to necessity?

A: The realization of the legal effects and consequences of being a mosque will not be certain if the probability of the restoration of the land to its original form of a mosque is slim.

Question 426: I have been conducting group prayers at a mosque for a while having no information about the details of the mosque's endowment. Given that this mosque is presently facing numerous financial difficulties, is it permissible to rent out ist basement to a business which fits the mosque's status?

A: There will be no problem in it if neither the 'mosque' title applies to the basement nor the basement is considered a part of the facilities which the mosque needs.

Question 427: The mosque does not have any properties through which it can run its affairs. The supervisory board has proposed digging a basement under the roofed section of the mosque in order to build a factory and facilities for public utilities for the service of the mosque. Is this permissible?

A: It is not permissible to dig a basement under the roofed section in order to set up a factory or the like.

Question 428: Is it absolutely permissible that kafirs [non-Muslims] enter Muslims' mosques although by way of visiting ancient monuments?

A: There is no problem, in itself, in their entrance to mosques other than Masjid al-Haram and Masjid al-Nabi(s) except if it results in making the mosque najis or dishonoring it or a junub's stop there.

Question 429: Is it permissible to perform prayers in a mosque built by kafirs?

A: There is no problem in performing prayers in it.

Question 430: Is it permissible to accept the money or other kinds of donations offered by a kafir for building a mosque?

A: There is no problem in it.

Question 431: What is the duty of someone who enters a mosque and sleeps there and becomes muhtalim[has seminal emission] but cannot leave the mosque after he wakes up?

A: If there is no way that he can leave the mosque and go to somewhere else, it will be obligatory on him to perform tayammum at once so that it will become permissible for him to remain in the mosque.

Rules Regarding Other Types Of Religious Center

Question 432: Is it permissible to register a Husayniyyah under the names of specific persons? And what is the rule when those who participated in accomplishing such a charitable project are not content with such an action?

A: With respect to a husayniyyah which is endowed for holding religious ceremonies, there is no need to register it under the names of specific persons. Anyway, registering it under the names of some of the participants in its construction must be done upon obtaining the permission of all of them.

Question 433: It is stated in Pisalahs that it is not permissible for a junub and a menstruous woman to enter the harams[shrines] of the Imams(a). Please explain whether haram means only the area beneath the dome or also any building linked to that area?

A: Haram means the area under the blessed dome and that which is commonly recognized as haram and the holy spot where the Imam(a) is buried. As far as the allached building and porches are concerned, they are not subject to haram's rule, therefore, there is no problem in the entrance of a junub or a menstruous woman in them except those sections which are considered parts of the mosque itself.

Question 434: A Husayniyyah was built next to an old mosque. At present, this mosque does not have enough space to accommodate all of the people who what to perform prayers. Is it permissible to annex the said Husayniyyah to this mosque and use it as a part of the mosque?

A: There is no problem in performing prayers in the Husayniyyah. However, if the Husayniyyah has been endowed correctly, according to Islamic law, as a Husayniyyah, it will not be permissible to transform it to a mosque or annex it to the adjacent mosque while considering it a part of that mosque.

Question 435: Could the carpets and properties donated to the shrine of one of the descendants of the Imams(a) be used in the jami' mosque of an area?

A: There is no problem in it provided that they are in excess of the needs of the shrine and its pilgrims.

Question 436: Do the rules of mosque also apply to the takiyyahs which are founded under the name of Abul-Fazl (a), etc.? Please, clarify the rules of such centers.

A: The rules of mosque do not apply to takiyyahs and Husayniyyahs.

Clothes Of The Praying Person

Question 437: Will my prayers be invalid if I perform them in a clothing which I doubt whether it has become najis?

A: A clothing which one doubts that it has become najis is considered clean and it is correct to perform prayers in it.

Question 438: I purchased a leather belt from Germany. Is there any shar'i problem in performing prayers with it? What is the rule if I doubt whether it is made of genuine or manufactured leather and whether the leather belongs to an animal which is slaughtered in Islamic way? And what is the ruling with respect to the prayers which I performed while having the belt on?

A: If you doubt whether it is made of genuine leather, there will be no problem in performing prayers with the belt on. But, if you know that it is made of genuine leather but you doubt whether it belongs to an animal that was slaughtered in Islamic way, it will have the same rule as a corpse [maytah]. However, the prayers performed in the past is considered valid.

Question 439: If someone knows that there is no najis substance on his clothes or body and perform his prayers but realizes afterwards that his body or clothes were najis, will the prayers he informed be invalid? What will the rule be if he realizes this matter during his prayers?

A: If he is not aware at all that his body or clothes are najis and come to know it only after the end of the prayers, his prayers will be valid and it will not be obligatory on him to repeat, or perform the qaza' of, that prayers. But, if he notices the matter during the prayers, it will be obligatory on him to remove the najasah-provided that he can do so without committing anything that contradicts the prayers-and complete his prayers. If he is unable to remove the najasah while preserving the appearance of prayers and there is enough time, it will be obligatory on him to break the prayers and resume it after the removal of the najasah.

Question 440: A person follows a certain marja'. He used to perform his prayers for a period of time while wearing clothes which is made of the leather of an animal that was doubted to be slaughtered in Islamic way while it was not actually correct to perform prayers in such clothes. According to the verdict of his marja', if he was carrying something from an animal the meat of which was not edible, the obligatory precaution would be to repeat the prayers. Is the rule pertaining to an animal which is doubted to be slaughtered in Islamic way similar to that the meat of which is not edible?

A: The rule of an animal which is doubted to be slaughtered in Islamic way is similar to that of the corpse [maytah]; it is najis and it is not permissible to eat it and perform prayers in it.

Question 441: A woman realizes during her prayers that her hair was unveiled and immediately covers it. Is it obligatory on her to repeat that prayers?

A: It is not obligatory to repeat that prayers as long as unveiling the hair is not intentional.

Question 442: Due to necessity, a person is compelled to clean his urinary outlet using a piece of wood or stone or something else. Then he washes that part with water after returning home. Is it obligatory on him to change or clean his underwear in order to perform prayers?

A: It will not be obligatory on him to clean his clothes if they have not been made najis by the wetness of the urine on the organ.

Question 443: Some imported industrial machines are installed with the assistance of foreign experts who are considered, according to Islamic law, kafirs and najis. The activation of these machines is accomplished through their lubrication or other actions done by hand. Therefore, these machines cannot possibly be clean. Given that workers' clothing and bodies always touch these machines during the work, and they do not have enough time throughout working hours to clean their clothing and bodies completely, what is the duty with respect to performing prayers?

A: Due to the probability that the kafir who has activated the machines in from Ahl al-Kitab, who are considered clean, or that he wears gloves while working, no certainty emerges concerning the uncleanness of the place and machines merely as a result of their activation by kafirs. If it can be assumed that there is certainty about that workers' bodies and clothings are made najis during the work, it will be obligatory to clean their bodies, and clean or change their clothing.

Question 444: If a praying person carries a handkerchief or something similar which are made najis by blood or has such things in his pocket, will his prayers be void?

A: If the handkerchief is so small that it cannot be used to hide one's private parts, there will be no problem in it.

Question 445: Is it correct to perform prayers in a clothes which is scented with modern perfumes containing alcohol?

A: There is no problem in performing prayers in it as long as the uncleanness of the perfume in question is not known.

Question 446: How much of the body is obligatory on a woman to cover in prayers? Is there any problem with short-sleeved clothes and in not wearing socks?

A: The standard is that the dress covers the whole body except the face, which must be washed during wuzu', the hands up to the wrists, and the feet up to the ankles even if the dress is something like Chador [the long garment worn by Iranian women over their clothes].

Question 447: Is it obligatory on women to cover their feet during prayers?

A: Covering the feet up to the ankles is not obligatory.

Question 448: Is it obligatory to cover one's chin completely when wearing a veil[hijab] and performing prayers or is it sufficient to cover the lower part of it or is it obligatory to cover the chin because it is a preliminary stage [muqadimah] of the obligatory covering of the face?

A: It is obligatory to cover the lower part of the chin not the chin itself, because it is a part of the face.

Question 449: Does the rule relating to najis clothing in which one cannot perform prayers apply only to the cases of praying absent-mindedly or while one is unaware of the rule or the subject, or does it cover cases of ambiguity [shubhah] with respect to the subject or to the rule?

A: The rule is not specific to the cases of forgetfulness or ignorance. Rather, it is permissible to perform prayers in a najis clothing if it is made of a material in which one may not perform prayers, even when one is aware and attentive.

Question 450: Does the existence of the hair or saliva of a cat on a person's clothes causes his prayers to be invalid?

A: Yes, it causes the prayers to be invalid.

Wearing and Using Gold and Silver

Question 451: What is the rule of wearing gold rings by men? (particularly during prayer)

A: A man is not allowed to wear a gold ring and the prayer he performs while wearing it is void.

Question 452: What is the rule of wearing rings made of white gold by men?

A: If the so called white gold' is composed of a substance other than yellow gold, it will not be forbidden to wear a ring made of it.

Question 453: Is there any problem, according to the shar', in wearing gold when it is not for beautification purposes and the gold is not visible for others?

A: It is absolutely forbidden for men to wear gold even though it is not for beautification purposes or the gold is hidden from the views of others.

Question 454: What is the ruling with respect to wearing gold by men? We ask this question because there are some people who claim that there is no problem in wearing gold for a short period such as the time of marriage.

A: Wearing gold is forbidden for men, whether it is done for a short period or a long one.

Question 456: What is the rule of selling and making golden jewellery which is specifically used by men and not worn by women?

A: Making golden jewellery to be specifically used by men is forbidden. Similarly, it is not permissible to buy and sell them for that purpose.

Question 457: We see in some parties that sweets are served in silver containers. Is this action considered an example of eating from a silver container? And what is its rule?

A: It will be forbidden to take food or the like from a silver container if it is done for the purpose of eating.

Question 458: Is it permitted for men to have their teeth covered with gold or have actual golden teeth put in?

A: There is no problem in these matters except in the case of the front teeth which may not be covered with gold if it is done for the purpose of beautification.

Question 459: Is there any problem in having one's tooth covered with gold? What is the rule of having it covered with platinum?

A: There is no problem in having one's teeth covered with gold or platinum. However, the problem arises in the case of covering teeth, particularly the front ones, with gold for the purpose of beautification.

Azan and Iqamah

Question 460: In our village, the person who raises the call to subh prayers during the blessed month of Ramazan always does so a few minutes before the beginning of the time so that people may be able to eat food and drink water until the middle of the azan. Is it correct to do so?

A: If raising the azan does not lead to people's confusion is not intended as an announcement of the sunrise, there will be no problem in it.

Question 461: Some individuals have started, by way of enjoining to ma'ruf and forbidding from munkar, to raise the call to prayers in groups in public streets. All praise be to Allah !this activity has had a great effect in preventing overt corruption in the environment of the area and encouraging people, especially the youth, towards the timely performance of prayers. However, someone has stated that this action is not specifically mentioned in the sources of Islamic law, and therefore is a bid'ah [prohibited innovation ]. This statement has caused some doubt. What is your esteemed opinion?

A: The decalarational call to prayers at the beginning of the times of daily obligatory prayers, its repetition by the listeners, and raising one's voice while reciting it are among the most highly recommended actions in the viewpoint of Islamic law. There is no problem in raising the azan in a group form around public streets as long as it does not lead to any insult, obstruction of the way, and harassment of others.

Question 462: Since raising the call to prayers is a religio-political act which involves a great reward, the believers decided to do so from the roofs of their houses without using a loudspeaker when the time of obligatory prayers, particularly the subh prayers, begins. What is the rule of such an action in case of objection by some neighbors?

A: There is no problem in raising the azan in a proper form from the roofs of houses as long as it does not entail annoying others and looking into neighbor's houses.

Question 463: What is the rule with respect to relaying the special programs of the dawns of the holy month of ramazan (except the call to subh prayers ) through the mosque's loudspeakers so that everyone hears it?

A: There is no problem in doing so in areas where most people are awake during the nights of the holy month of Ramazan for reciting the Holy Qur'an and supplications and attending religious ceremonies and so on. But if it annoys the mosque's neighbors, it will be impermissible.

Question 464: Is it allowed in mosques and centers to broadcast Qur'an verses before the call to subh prayers and supplications in such a very loud voice that is heard from a distance of several kilometers, given that this occasionally continues for more than half an hour?

A: There is no problem in broadcasting the azan in a normal way by means of a loudspeaker to announce the beginning of the time of obligatory subh prayers. But there is no shar'i justification for, and rather there is a problem in, broadcasting Qur'anic verses, supplication, and the likes at any time using a loudspeaker in the mosque when it annoys the neighbors. In principle, it is not right to cause annoyance for others by broadcasting the recitation of Qur'anic verses and supplications.

Question 465: Is it permissible for a man to be sufficed, for his prayers, with the azan of a woman?

A: It is not unlikely that it is permissible for him to be sufficed with her azan provided that he hears all parts of it from her.

Question 466: What is your esteemed opinion on the third testimony[shahadah] for the master of God's friends, Imam Ali (a), as being the commander[amir] and the leader[wali], in the azan and iqamah of obligatory prayers?

A: It is not a part of the azan or iqamah according to Islamic law, but there will be no problem in it if it is not included with the intention of putting it into, and making it a part of, the azan and iqamah. Rather, this testimony will be preferable if it is included solely for expressing and stressing one's belief regarding the Caliph [successor] of the Holy prophet, may God's blessings be upon him and his infallible inheritors.

Qira'ah And Its Rules

Question 467: What is the rule regarding the prayers in which our qira'ah [recitation of the Hamd and the Surah in the first two rak'ahs] was not loud [jahri]?

A: It is obligatory on men to recite the Hamd and the Surah loudly in subh, maghrib, and isha' prayers.

Question 468: While performing the qaza' of subh prayers, should the qira'ah be done loudly [jahr] or quietly [ikhfat]?

A: It is obligatory to recite the Hamd and the Surah loudly in subh, maghrib, and isha' prayers whether the prayers is performed by way of ada' or qaza' and at all times even if the qaza' of the prayers is being performed during the day.

Question 469: We know that each rak'ah of prayers consists of niyyah [intent], takbirat al-ihram, the Hamd, the Surah, ruku'[bowing], and sujud[prostration]. On the other hand, it is obligatory to recite the Hamd and the Surah quietly[ikhfat] in zuhr and asr prayers, the third rak'ah of the maghrib, and the last two rak'ahs of isha' prayers. However, in the Radio and the TV, the zikrs of the ruku' and sujud of the third rak'ah are read loudly. Given that these ruku' and sujud are parts of a rak'ah in which ikhfat is obligatory, what is the rule regarding this matter?

A: The obligatoriness of loud recitation in maghrib, isha' and subh prayers and of quiet recitation in zuhr and asr prayers are limited to the recitation of the Hamd and the Surah, just as the obligatoriness of quiet recitation in the rak'ahs other than the first two rak'ahs of maghrib and isha' prayers applies only to the recitation of the Hamd and the tasbihat [ritual glorifications] of those rak'ahs. As for the zikrs of ruku' and sujud and also tashahhud and taslim and other obligatory zikrs of the five prayers, the mukallaf has the choice to recite in either way, loudly or quietly.

Question 470: If someone wants to perform, in addition to the seventeen daily rak'ahs, other seventeen rak'ahs of qaza' prayers by way of precaution, will it be obligatory on him to recite loudly or quietly in the first two rak'ahs of subh, maghrib, and isha' prayers?

A: With respect to the obligatoriness of loud or quiet recitation in daily prayers, there is no difference between ada' or qaza' prayers although they are performed by way of precaution.

Question 471: We know that the word salat [prayers] ends with 't' but in azan it is said: "Hayya ala al-salah" [hurry up for prayers ] (ending with 'h'). Is this correct?

A: There is no problem in ending the word 'salat' with 'h' while practicing waqf [stopping at the end of the word]. Rather, it is obligatory.

Question 472: Given that, in his commentary on the blessed Hamd chapter, Imam Khomeini (q) prefers the word 'malik' over 'maalik,' is it correct to pronounce the word in either way while reciting this holy chapter in obligatory and non-obligatory prayers?

A: There is no problem in observing precaution in thisrespect.

Question 473: Is it correct to stop, without immediate transfer to the rest of the sentence, after reciting "ghayr al-maghzubi alayhim..." while reciting "Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad" in tashahhud, to stop after the word "Muhammad" (s) and then to continue by reciting "wa ali Muhammad"?

A: It does not harm as long as it does not reach the point of disturbing the integrity of the sentence.

Question 474: The following question was directed to Imam [Khomeini]'s Eminence (q) : "Considering that there are several opinions on the pronunciation of letter 'Zad' in Tajwid [the art of correct and pleasant recitation of the Qur'an], according to which opinion do you act?" Imam replied : "it is not obligatory to know the pronunciations of letters according to the opinions of Tajwid experts but to pronounce every letter in a way that convinces Arabs' understanding [urf] that he is uttering that letter correctly." I am wondering:
1) What is meant by "convinces Arabs' understanding that he is uttering that letter correctly"?
2) Have not the rules of Tajwid been derived - as the rules of Sarf and Nahw [Arabic Grammar] have - from Arabs' usage and language? If so, how could it be possibly claimed that they are separated from each other?
3) If someone is made sure - by a legitimate method - that he does not pronounce letter in a correct way during the recitation of Qur'an while he has a good learning chance from all aspects - that is, he has a good talent and sufficient time to learn that skill, etc. - will it be obligatory on him - within the limits of his capabilities - to try to learn the correct way of reading or a way that is close to it?

A: The criterion for the correctness of reading is compliance with the way native readers, from whom the rules of Tajwid have been taken, read. Therefore, if the difference among the opinions of the scholars of Tajwid regarding the pronunciation of a certain letter originates from difference in their understanding of the way native readers recite, the practice of native readers will be the basis and reference. But if the difference in opinions arises from difference among native readers regarding pronunciation, the mukallaf will have the choice in selection of either of those opinions.

Question 475: Someone had the intention of reciting Fatihah [Hamd] and Ikhlas chapters at the beginning or is accustomed to reciting them. However, he happened to recite the Bismillah forgetting to specify the chapter. Is it obligatory on him to return back and specify the chapter and then recite the Bismillah?

A: It is not obligatory on him to repeat the Bismillah. He can consider the Bismillah that he already recited sufficient for every chapter he wants to recite afterwards.

Question 476: Is it necessary to pronounce all the words properly in Arabic in obligatory prayers? Can a prayers be considered correct when all words are not properly pronounced correctly in Arabic?

A: It is obligatory to pronounce all the zikrs of prayers including the Hamd, the Surah, and other parts correctly. If a praying person is not fully aware of the pronunciation of the words in their correct forms then it will be obligatory on him to learn it. However, if he is unable to learn, he will be excused for it.

Question 477: Does the title 'reading' also applies to the recitation of words in one's heart without expressing them?

A: 'Reading' does not include such a recitation and nothing short of expressing the words in a way that can be called 'reading' is adequate in prayers.

Question 478: According to the opinion of some commentators of the Holy Qur'an, a number of its chapters, such as 'Fil' and 'Quraysh,' and 'Inshirah' and 'Zuha,' are not considered complete chapters. They believe that whoever reads one of these chapters, like 'Fil,' he should certainly read the other chapter, like 'Quraysh,' too and the same also applies to chapters 'Inshirah' and 'Zuha' that should be read together. If someone reads 'Fil' or 'Inshirah' chapters alone in prayers and does not know this rule, what will his duty be?

A: The previous prayers in which he read only one of chapters 'Fil' and 'Ilaf,' or 'Zuha' and 'A-Lam Nashrah,' are correct if he was unaware of the rule.

Question 479: If, due to negligence in prayers, someone reads 'Hamd' `nd 'Chapter' in the third rak'ah of zuhr prayers, for example, and notices his mistake after finishing the prayers, will it be obligatory on him to repeat that prayers? and if he does not ever notice his mistake, will his prayers be correct?

A: The recitation of 'Hamd' suffices in other parts of prayers than the first two rak'ahs even if it was done by negligence and there will be no problem in adding the 'Chapter' due to negligence or ignorance.

Question 480: According to Imam[Khomeini]'s (q) Eminence, the criterion for ikhfat in zuhr and asr prayers is avoidance of jahr. Given that all letters except ten of them cannot be read but through being uttered clearly, if we have to pray the zuhr and the asr without clear utterance, then what will happen to the eighteen letters that are naturally expressed clearly? Please explain the rule.

A: The criterion in ikhfat is not to forsake voice's substance but to avoid uttering it ; in contrast to jahr which means expression of voice's substance.

Question 481: How could non-Muslims, whether men or women, who embrace Islam and are not familiar with Arabic language perform their religious duties, including prayers, etc.? and basically, is there any need to learn Arabic in this case or not?

A: it is obligatory to learn takbir, Hamd, Surah, tashahhud, and taslim, for prayers, and also whatever in which Arabic recitation is obligatory.

Question 482: Is there any proof for the opinion that nightly nafilahs [recommended prayers] or the nafilahs of Jahri prayers should be recited loudly? What about low recitation of the nafilahs of ikhfati prayers? If yes, suppose that a nafilah which is subordinate to a jahri prayers, for instance, is recited quietly. Will such a nafilah be correct? What about the reverse case situation? We would appreciate your kind reply.

A: It is commendable to recite the nafilahs of jahri, obligatory prayers loudly and those of ikhfati ones quietly. If they are recited otherwise they will also be correct.

Question 483: Is it obligatory in prayers to recite a whole chapter after the Hamd or does it suffice to read a part of the Holy Qur'an? And in the former case, is it permissible to recite some Qur'anic verses after the Surah?

A: In daily obligatory prayers, recitation of some verses of the Holy Qur'an does not substitute for the recitation of a whole chapter. However, reading some verses of the Qur'an after the recitation of a whole chapter has no problem.

Question 484: If someone makes a mistake-due to his negligence or accent-in the recitation of the Hamd and the Surah, or in i'rab and harakahs [the vowels in the middle, or the form of the end] of the words, by reading the word 'yulad', for example, as 'yulid,' what will be the rule of such a prayers?

A: If he is making this mistake intentionally or is a negligent, ignorant person[jahil muqassir] -namely, someone who does not know a rule and nor he tries to learn it while he has the ability to do so -his prayers will be void, otherwise it will be correct.

Question 485: Someone is 35 or 40 years old. His parentsdid not teach him how to perform prayers. Although he is illiterate, he tried to learn how to say prayers in a correct way. The problem is that he cannot express prayers' words and zikrs in a correct manner, and even, he does not recite some of its words at all. Is his prayers correct?

A: His prayers will be correct if he does his best in reciting any part of it he can.

Question 486: I used to pronounce the words of prayers in the way I had learned from my parents and in secondary school. After a while, I found out that I had been pronouncing those words in a wrong manner. Is it obligatory on me -according to the verdict of Imam[Khomeini] (q) -to repeat the prayers? or are all prayers that I performed in that way correct?

A: Based on your assumption, all your previous prayers are correct and you do not have to repeat, or make up for [qaza'], them.

Question 487: Are the prayers performed in gesture by a dumb person, whose senses function properly despite his inability to speak, correct?

A: His prayers is correct and discharging in the mentioned assumption.

Zikr

(Zikr is generally applied to an statement recited in glorification of God and invocation of his blessings).

Question 488: Does intentionally interchanging the zikrs of ruku' and sujud pose any problem?

A: If they are recited as a general zikr of Allah then there will be no problem and the ruku', sujud, and prayers will all be correct.

Question 489: If a person mistakenly recites the zikrs of sujud while in ruku', or conversely says the zikr of ruku' in sujud, and realizes his mistake and corrects himself immediately, will his prayers be void?

A: no, there is no problem and his prayers is correct.

Question 490: What is the ruling in the case of a person who realizes after his prayers, or during it, that his zikr was incorrect?

A: If he has passed the point of the zikr (i.e., he has completed that particular ruku' or sajdah) then there is no problem.

Question 491: Does it suffice to recite the fourfold tasbihat just once in the third and fourth rak'ah of prayers?

A: Yes, even though it is more precautions[ahwat] to repeat them three times.

Question 492: The fourfold tasbihat are recited three times in prayers, but if a person by mistake recites them four times, will his prayers be acceptable to Allah?

A: There is no problem in it.

Question 493: What is the ruling in the case of a person who does not know whether he has recited the fourfold tasbihat three times or more or less in the third and fourth rak'ahs of prayers?

A: Just once is sufficient, and he is not accountable. And if he has not yet gone into ruku' then he may assume the lesser number has been recited.

Question 494: Is it allowed to recite the "Bihawlillah Ta'ala..." in prayers while the body is in motion? And is it correct to say it while getting up?

A: There is no problem in it. Indeed, the above-mentioned zikr is essentially recited while rising for the next rak'ah of prayers.

Question 495: What is meant by the term 'zikr'? And does it include the salawat [greetings] upon the prophet (s) and his household (a)?

A: All expression containing the zikr [remembrance] of Allah are counted as zikr ;and the salawat upon Muhammad (s) and the household of Muhammad (a) is one of the best zikrs.

Question 496: In watr prayers[the one-rak'ah prayers included in night prayers] when we raise our hands for qunut and ask allah for our needs, is it wrong if we ask for them in persian?

A: No, there is nothing wrong in supplicating in qunut in persian. Moreover, there is no restriction on supplicating in qunut in a language other than Arabic.

Rules of Sujud [Prostration]

Question 497: What is the ruling on performing sujud and tayammum on cement or floor tiles[mosaic]?

A: There is no problem in doing sujud upon them, but performing tayammum on them is problematic and it is more precautious to abstain.

Question 498: In prayers, is it incorrect to place one's hands on floor tiles perforated by small holes?

A: No, there is no problem in the issue as stated.

Question 499: Is there any problem in using, for sujud, a turbah that has become blackened and dirty in such a way that the stain covering it obstructs the forehead from making contact with the turbah?

A: If the stain on it is so much as to form a barrier between the forehead and the turbah, the sujud is void and so is the prayers.

Question 500: A woman would do sujud on a turbah while her forehead (in particular the place of sujud) would be covered by her hijab; is it obligatory on her to repeat these prayers?

A: If she was not aware of the obstacle during her sujud, then it is not necessary to repeat the prayers.

Question 501: A woman after putting her head on the turbah realizes that her forehead is not in complete contact with the turbah due to her scarf or 'chador' being in the way. So she raises her head and places it again after having removed the hindrance. What is the ruling on this issue? Moreover if this last action of hers is counted as sajdah in itself, then what becomes of the prayers that she has done (in this manner )?

A: It is obligatory to reposition the forehead until contact is made with the turbah without raising the head from the ground. Now if this action of raising the forehead from the ground to perform the sajdah on the turbah, was done out of ignorance or by mistake and she did this in only one of the two sajdahs of a single rak'ah then her prayers is correct and there is no need to repeat it. But if the action was done on purpose or it was done in both sajdahs of a rak'ah then her prayers is void and it is obligatory for her to repeat it.

Question 502: While performing sujud it is obligatory to place 'the seven parts of sujud[al-masajid al-sab'ah]' on the ground. But we are not able to do this due to our particular health condition (being handicapped as veterans who use wheelchairs ). So for the purposes of prayers we either raise the turbah to our forehead or we place the turbah on the arm of our chair and perform sajdah on it. Is this practice of ours correct?

A: If it is possible for you to place the turbah on the arm of the chair and do sujud upon it then do so; your prayers will be correct. If this is not possible then do it by any means possible for you, even through signs and gestures for ruku' and sujud.

Question 503: What is the rule of performing sujud on marble (pavement in the sacred shrines)?

A: There is no problem in performing sujud on marble.

Question 504: What is the ruling on placing toes on the ground in addition to the big toe while doing sujud?

A: There is no problem in it.

Question 505: Recently a turbah for prayers has been manufactured called 'Mohr-e Amin.' Its use is that it counts the rak'ahs and sajdahs for the person praying and it removes doubt to some degree. The manufacturer claims that marja's have permitted to perform sujud upon it. Please clear the matter for us with your opinion, considering that when the forehead is placed on it, it moves down a little due to the presence of a metal spring beneath it. Is it correct to do sujud on it?

A: If it is of a material that is correct to do sujud upon and after putting the forehead on it and pressing down on it, it comes to a stable position, there is no problem in performing sujud on it.

Question 506: Which foot should we place upon the other while sitting down after having performed sujud?

A: It is recommended to place the right foot on the sole of the left foot.

Question 507: What is the best zikr to recite after the obligatory zikrs of sujud and ruku'?

A: The repetition of the same obligatory zikr is best, provided that it ends in an odd number (of repetitions). In addition it is recommended in sujud to supplicate concerning the needs of this world and that of the Hereafter.

Question 508: What is the shar'i duty upon listening to a Sajdah chapter when the reciter is not present, as from a radio or recording instrument?

A: Hearing an audio-taped recording of a Sajdah chapter does not make sujud obligatory, but if it is heard during a live broadcast on the radio or over a loudspeaker then a sajdah is obligatory per precaution.

Rules of Greeting in Prayers

Question 509: It is obligatory to respond to the greeting of children?

A: It is obligatory to reply the greeting of distinguishing children (male and female ) in the same way as it is obligatory to do so with men and women.

Question 510: If a person is given a greeting and fails to reply due to inattention or some other reason so that a short span of time passes, is it still obligatory upon him to reply to the greeting?

A: If the delay is of such a length that a reply after it would not be considered a reply (to the greeting ), then it is not obligatory.

Question 511: A person enters upon a group of people and salutes them with the words "al-salamu alaykum jami'an. " One of the people in the group is praying. Is it obligatory upon him to answer the salutation even though someone else in the group has already replied to the greeting?

A: It is closer to precaution for him not to reply if someone has already done so.

Question 512: What is your opinion with regards to answering a greeting that is not in the form of "al-salam..."?

A: It is not permissible to reply to it during prayers, but if he is not in prayers then it is closer to precaution to return the greeting when it is oral and is normally[in urf] considered to be a greeting.

Question 513: If someone is repeatedly given many salutation at a time by a person or is greeted by many people at the same time, is it sufficient for him to reply once for all these greetings?

A: In the first instance a single reply is sufficient. In the second, one reply in the plural form (with the intention to answer all their greetings) would suffice.

Question 514: Is it obligatory to answer the person who greets another with the word "salam" instead of "salamun alaykum"? Is it obligatoryto return the greeting of an immature person if he says "salamun alaykum"?

A: If it is commonly considered to be a greeting, its reply will be obligatory. The reply to the greeting offered by a distinguishing child is also obligatory.

Things That Invalidate Prayers

Question 515: Does testimony concerning the wilayah of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a), in the tashahhud invalidate the prayers?

A: Reciting things other than those prescribed in the tashahhud of the obligatory prayers with the intention that they are canonically prescribed by the Islamic law or is a part of the tashahhud, voids the prayers, even though the extraneous phrase be true and correct in itself.

Question 516: A person isafflicted with dissimulation [riya'] in his worships and he is now struggling with his self to overcome this riya'. Is this also counted as a form of riya'? How can he keep away from riya'?

A: It is obligatory to perform acts of worship with the intention of nearness[qurbah] to God. Now for grtting rid of riya he must think of the greatness of Allah, mighty are His bounties, the weakness of his own self, and his and others dependence on Allah, and his and their subservience to Him.

Question 517: Is it obligatory on women to place one hand upon the other during prayers?

A: It is not obligatory. Moreover if it is done in the manner of 'takattuf' [the folding and clasping of hands during prayers as prescribed by Sunni fiqh] it is not permissible.

Question 518: When attending group prayers with the Sunni brothers, the word 'ammin' is pronounced loudly after the imam finishes reciting the Fatihah chapter. What is the ruling on this?

A: If taba'iyyah [conformity] requires the saying of 'ammin'in the said situation, there will be no problem in it; otherwise it will not be permissible.

Question 519: In our obligatory prayers is it allowed to say some of the word of Hamd chapter, or of another chapter or the invocations, in a loud voice in order to warn a child that may be getting into danger or to make the occupants of the house aware of the situation so that they may remove the danger? In addition, what is the status of the person's prayers during which he through gestures of the hand or raising of the eyebrows, informs another person of something or answers his question?

A: If the raising of the voice when reciting a verse or invocations (for the purpose of warning others ) does not cause one to break the form [hay'ah] of the prayers, then there is no objection to doing so, on condition that the recitation and the invocation are done with the intent [niyyah] of recitation and invocation. Of course, speaking with others during prayers or making movements that ruin the necessary composure and stillness or ruin the prescribed form of the prayers leads to its invalidation.

Question 520: Does it invalidate the prayers if a person laughs in the middle of his prayers upon recalling a joke or due to an humorous event?

A: Yes, the prayers will be invalid if the laughter is out loud (guffaw or chuckle).

Question 521: Does the passing of hands over the face [wiping] after the supplication of qunut invalidate the prayers? And in case of its being void is it also considered to be a sin?

A: There is no problem in it and it does not invalidate the prayers.

Question 522: Is it allowed to close one's eyes during prayers? (As keeping them open is a distraction from the prayers.)

A: There is no shar'i problem in shutting eyes during prayers.

Question 523: During my prayers I sometimes recall the spiritual heights and elevation that I experienced in my days of confrontation with the infidel Ba'thist army and this helps me to increase my humility in prayers, does doing this invalidate the prayers?

A: It does not harm the validity of the prayer.

Question 524: Is the prayers invalid during the three days in which two persons have quarrelled, and broken ties? Does the same hold for fasting?

A: No, disagreements and rifts between two people do not invalidate the prayers nor the fasting.

Doubt [Shakk] In Prayers And Its Rules

Question 525: A person is in the third rak'ah of his prayers when he doubts whether he has performed the qunut or not. What is the ruling on this? Should he complete the prayers or should he break it when the doubt occurs?

A: The doubt should be ignored. His prayers is correct and there is no obligation upon him in this case.

Question 526: Should a person pay heed to doubts that occur in a nafilah prayers (other than the doubt as to the number of rak'ahs performed)? For example, he is unaware whether he has done one sajdah or two.

A: The rule of doubts in the words and deeds of a nafilah prayers is the same as in obligatory prayers, where the doubt is heeded if its pertinent place has not passed, and is ignored after that.

Question 527: One who doubts excessively[kathir al-shakk] is not to pay heed to his doubts, but just the same, what is he to do if the doubts occurs during prayers?

A: He must posit the occurrence of that which he doubts, unless this would lead to the invalidation of his prayers, in which case he must hold the opposite to be true. There is no difference whether the doubt is in the number of rak'ahs, or the words or acts of prayers.

Question 528: What is the religious duty of a person who realizes that his worship was invalid after a number of years, or doubts as to its correctness?

A: Doubts after the deed are ignored. In the case where he is certain of its invalidity, he must perform the qaza' of as much as is possible.

Question 529: Does the prayers of a person become void if he mistakenly performs some parts of his prayers in place of others, or looks at some point in the middle of his prayers, or speaks by mistake?

A: Unintentional [sahwi] acts in prayers do not bring about its invalidation. In some cases though they call for the performance of sajdat al-sahw. But, of course, the prayers will be invalid if extra rukns [pillars of prayers] are performed or if some are left out.

Question 530: What is the duty of the person who forgets to perform a rak'ah and then remembers it in the last rak'ah? For example, thinking his first rak'ah of prayers to be his second he performs a third and a fourth rak'ah; then in this last rak'ah he becomes aware that it is really only his third rak'ah. What should he do?

A: Before reciting the final salam of the prayers, it is obligatory on him to perform the rak'ahs that he has missed and then recite the salam. Then if he had mistakenly performed extra acts or left out some of those that are obligatory but not a rukn of prayers, he must perform two sajdat al-sahws. If he had not done a obligatory tashahhud in its proper place, it will be obligatory on him, by way of precaution, to perform its qaza' as well.

Question 531: How can a person know the number of rak'ahs of ihtiyat prayers [performed by way of precaution] he is liable to perform? (That is whether it is one rak'ah or two ).

A: The number of rak'ahs of ihtiyat prayers corresponds to the number of rak'ahs that were most likely missed in the obligatory prayers. So when it is doubted whether two rak'ahs were performed or four, then it becomes necessary to perform two rak'ahs of ihtiyat prayers. However, if the uncertainty is between three and four then only a single rak'ah of ihtiyat prayers must be done.

Question 532: Does sajdat al-sahw become obligatory if a word from the invocations of the prayers, or from the Qur'anic chapters, or from the supplication of qunut is accidentally or mistakenly recited?

A: No, it does not become obligatory.

Qaza' [Compensatory ] Prayers

Question 533: I was about seventeen years old and I did not know anything concerning [the rule of ] seminal emission, ghusl [ritual bath], and the like. I had not even heard from anyone anything about these things. I did not understand the meaning of janabah or the necessity of ghusl. So if my prayers and fasts until this time are wrong, what will my duty be? What must I do now?

A: It is obligatory to repeat all the prayers that you did in the state of janabah. However, the fasts that you kept in this state are correct and sufficient, and there is no need to repeat them.

Question 534: Unfortunately, due to my ignorance and a lack of will power I had got into the evil habit of masturbation, and so I did not perform prayers at times. But I do not know how long I forsake prayers, as it was not one continuous period (I would not pray when I was junub and had not done my ghusl yet), but I think that I was in this state for six months. I have made up my mind to perform the qaza' of my prayers for this period. Is the performance of the qaza' of these prayers obligatory?

A: You must perform the qaza' of all daily prayers that you know you did not perform or which you performed while you were in a state of ritual uncleanness [hadath].

Question 535: Do the recommended or nafilah prayers of a person who does not know about performing the qaza' prayers due on him count as qaza' prayers? (Assuming that he really is responsible for some qaza' prayers ).

A: Nafilah and recommended prayers do not count as qaza' prayers and if any qaza' prayers are due upon one then one must perform them with the intent of qaza' prayers.

Question 536: It has been about seven months since I reached the age of obligation [taklif]. Up until some weeks before my age of taklif I was under the impression that there was only one sing of maturity: the completion of fifteen lunar years. But then in this period I happened to read a book which spoke of the signs of maturity for boys. I read there of other signs of maturity than the ones I presently possessed but do not know the date of their occurrence. So, do I now have to perform the qaza' of my prayers and fasts? Taking into consideration that I would sometimes perform prayers and that I fasted the whole of Ramazan of last year, what is the ruling in this case?

A: It is obligatory to perform the qaza' of all the prayers and fasts that one is certain of having missed after having reached the age of legal responsibility.

Question 537: If a person performs janabah bath three times in the month of Ramazan, say for example, on the twentieth, twenty -fifth, and twenty-seventh of the month, and afterwards becomes certain that one of these baths was incorrect, what is the ruling with respect to his prayers and his fast?

A: His fast is correct, but he must perform the qaza' of his prayers by way of precaution.

Question 538: What is the ruling on the prayers and fasts of a person who for some time, due to ignorance, did not observe the proper order in performing his ghusl?

A: If his lapse with respect to the order was such that it caused the ghusl to be invalid ( for example in the case where he washed his right side before his head and neck, or his left side before his right ) then he must repeat the prayers that he prayed in the state of greater ritual impurity [al-hadath al-akbar]. But as for his fasts, only those fasts are correct which he kept with belief in the correctness of his ghusl.

Question 539: How should one perform the qaza' of the prayers of one year?

A: He must start with one of the prayers and perform it in the same way as he performs the five daily prayers.

Question 540: If a person has a lot of qaza' prayers due on him, is it permissible for him to perform them in the following manner:
1) to perform subh prayers, say twenty times;
2) zuhr and asr prayers, twenty times;
3) maghrib and isha' prayers, twenty times, continuing in this way for a year?

A: There is no problem in performing the qaza' prayers in the manner described.

Question 541: Someone's head received injuries causing damage to a part of his brain, as a result of which his left hand and foot as well as his tongue were paralyzed. Consequently, he has forgotten how to pray and is not able to learn it either. But he can make out the different parts of prayers by following a book or by listening to a tape. Presently, he is faced with two problems with respect to his prayers. First, he is not able to purify his urinary outlet nor can he perform wuzu'. Second, he has a difficulty with recitation in prayers. What is the ruling in this case? And what about the prayers that he has performed over the last six months?

A: When he is able, though with the help of others, to perform wuzu' or tayammum, then he must perform his prayers in any possible way; even if this entails taking assistance by listening to a tape or looking at a written text or using other similar means. He must perform the qaza' of all the prayers that he failed to perform in the past, except for those that he missed due to being totally unconscious for the entire period of the prayer.

Question 542: In my youth I performed the qaza' of my zuhr and asr prayers more than that of my maghrib, isha' and subh prayers. But I do not know their number, order or sequence. Should I perform dawr prayers in this case? What is dawr prayers? Please clarify this matter for me.

A: It is not necessary to observe the order, and it is enough to perform as many prayers as one is certain of having missed. Dawr and repetition is not obligatory upon you to ascertain their performance in order.

Question 543: If a non-Muslim converts to Islam after a period of time, will it be obligatory on him to make up for the prayers and fasts which he has no performed?

A: It is not obligatory.

Question 544: After marriage, I occasionally experienced emissions of a liquid which I thought was najis, and therefore, performed janabah bath having its intent in mind and then offered prayers without performing wuzu'. This liquid is called mazy in the risalah, and now, I do not know the rule regarding the prayers which I performed with janabah bath while I was not in the state of janabah and without performing wuzu'?

A: It is obligatory to make up for all of the prayers which you offered without wuzu' but with janabah bath after experiencing the liquid's emission.

Question 545: Due to distorted propaganda, some people did not perform their prayers and other obligatory duties for some years. But, after reading Imam Khomeini's risalah, they repented not being able to make up for their missed obligations. What is the rule regarding them?

A: It is obligatory on them to make up for as many of the missed obligatory duties as possible.

Question 546: A person died while he had to perform the qaza' of some fasts of Ramazan and of some prayers. He also left behind a certain amount of wealth. If this wealth is spent for the performance of the qaza' of his missed fasts, the qaza' of his prayers will remain outstanding and vise versa. In this situation, which one of the two should be given priority over the other?

A: None of the fasts and the prayers have any priority. As long as the person is alive, it is obligatory on himself to perform the qaza' of both missed fasts and prayers. If he fails to do so himself, it will be obligatory on him to will, at the end of his life, that someone is hired, out of the one third of his inheritance, to perform as much of his qaza' prayers and fasts as his inheritance can afford.

Question 547: Most often I offered my prayers and performed the qaza' of those which I missed either because I was asleep during their times or my body and clothes were najis and I failed to clean them due to laziness. Now, how could I calculate the number of the missed daily, ayat, and qasr [Traveler's], prayers due on me?

A: It suffices that you perform that number of the missed prayers you are certain about. Out of this number, perform that number of qasr and ayat prayers that you are certain about and offer the remaining as daily prayers. There is nothing else more than this on you to perform.

Eldest Son's Performance Of The Qaza' Prayers Of His Father

Question 548: My father has had a brain stroke and due to it he remained ill for two years and was unable to distinguish between good and bad. That is to say, he had lost all his mental senses. During this two year period, he has not been able to perform his prayers or fasts. Since I am the family's eldest son, is it obligatory on me to perform his missed prayers and fasts? Of course, I know that if he was fine, it would be obligatory on me to perform those missed prayers. I would appreciate your advice in this regard.

A: It will be obligatory to perform his missed prayers if he is not so weak that he is considered insane and is not unconscious during all of the times of prayers.

Question 549: Who should give the kaffarah [a penalty for not performing an obligation ] for missed fasts of a person after he dies. Is it obligatory on the sons and daughters of the deceased person to give the kaffarah or could somebody else give it as well?

A: With respect to the kaffarah that was due on the father, if he could have the choice between fasting or feeding [it'am], the kaffarah should be taken out of his inheritance if possible, and if not, the rule closer to precaution [ahwat] will be the obligatoriness of fasting on the eldest son.

Question 550: An elderly man left his family due to certain reasons and it was difficult for him to maintain contact with them being the eldest son of his parents. During that period, his father passed away and the son is unaware of the number of prayers and other duties his father might have missed. He does not have enough money to hire somebody to perform those missed duties for his father either. Nor does he have the ability to perform them himself due to his elderliness. What should he do?

A: It is obligatory to perform only those missed prayers for one's father which are known. It is obligatory on the eldest son to perform his father's missed prayers by any means possible. If he is unable to do so, he will be excused.

Question 551: If the eldest child of a deceased person is female and his/her second child is male, will it be obligatory on this son also to perform the missed prayers and fasts of the mother and the father?

A: The criterion is the son's being the eldest among the sons, if his father has any sons. As for the assumption in question, the performance of father's missed prayers and fasts is obligatory on the son who is the father's second child. the obligatoriness of the performance of mother's missed prayers and fasts is not certain, although it is closer to precaution to offer them for her as well.

Question 552: If the eldest son-whether mature or not-dies before his father, will it become obligatory on any of the other sons to perform the missed prayers of his father?

A: The performance of father's missed prayers and fasts is obligatory on the eldest son who is alive when his father dies, even if he is not the father's first child or son.

Question 553: I am the eldest son of the family. Is it obligatory on me to investigate and acquire information from my father about his missed duties so that I can perform them for him? Or should he inform me of the numbers outstanding and if he does not, what will my duty be?

A: It is not obligatory on you to investigate, but it is obligatory on the father to specify it in his will. In any case, it is a duty of the eldest son to perform those fasts and prayers of his father which he certainly knows to be missed.

Question 554: If someone dies while owning only a house where his children live and he has some missed prayers and fasts to perform while his son cannot do so for him because of his daily occupations, will it be obligatory to sell this house and have his missed prayers and fasts performed?

A: The performance of the missed prayers and fasts, which were obligatory on the father, is the duty of his eldest son in all cases except if the deceased person wills that someone is hired by one third of his inheritance for that purpose and that amount is sufficient for all of the prayers and fasts that are obligatory on him. In this case, it will be obligatory to spend one third of the property left by the deceased person.

Question 555: If the eldest son who had the obligation to offer his father's missed prayers dies, will this obligation pass on to the eldest son's inheritor or to the grandfather's second eldest son?

A: The performance of the father's missed prayers and fasts, which was obligatory on his eldest son, is obligatory on none of the son or the brother of the eldest son.

Question 556: In case that a father never performed any prayers, will his prayers be considered as all missed and will it be obligatory on his eldest son to offer them for him?

A: It is more precautions in this case to perform them for him.

Question 557: If a father forsakes all of his worship duties intentionally, will it be obligatory on his eldest son to perform all of the prayers and fasts that his father missed over 50 years?

A: In case nf intentional forsaking, it is not unlikely that the performance of missed prayers and fasts is not obligatory on the eldest son. However, precaution ought not be forgone in such a case as well with respect to performing his missed prayers and fasts for him.

Question 558: If the eldest son already has the obligation to perform some missed prayers and fasts of his own when the performance of his father's missed prayers and fasts is also added to his obligations, which one of the two will have priority?

A: He has the choice in this situation, therefore, it is correct for him to begin either of them.

Question 559: I have a father who has some qaza' prayers due on him but he cannot offer them and I am the family's eldest son. Is it permissible-while he is still alive -that I perform his missed prayers or hire someone for performing them?

A: It is not correct to perform the missed prayers and fasts of someone else when he is still alive.

Group [ Jama'ah ] Prayers

Question 560: What should a group prayers leader say in his niyyah? Should he perform it with the intention of jama'ah or furada [praying individually and independently from a group]?

A: If he wants to acquire the benefits of group prayers then he should have the intent to lead the prayers and the jama'ah. If he enters the prayers without the intention of leading then his prayers is correct and there is no problem for others to read their prayers behind him.

Question 561: Some of the people do not attend the group prayers which is held during working hours at the bases of the armed forces because of the work they have at hand. This is even after the fact that they can do that work later on or even the following day. Can this action of theirs be classified as behavior of a people who regard prayers as not being important?

A: Attending group prayers is not, in itself essentially obligatory. However, to read prayers at the first moment and to acquire the preference shown for group prayers, a proper arrangement and organization of office hours should take place so that this Godly duty could be performed in the form of a group prayers in the shortest necessary period of time.

Question 562: What is you opinion regarding the recommended actions such as nafilah, tawassul supplication and other supplications of such a nature which are performed in Governmental offices before, after and during prayers? These act usually takes longer time than the actual group prayers itself.

A: Any recommended actions which are performed with the group prayers would be considered objectionable if they become a cause for time wasting and delay in the performance of official duties there.

Question 563: Is it permissible to start a second group prayers in an area where another group prayers consisting of several people already exists a mere 50 to 100 meters away and the sound of azan is quite clearly heard?

A: There is no problem in starting a second group prayers in such a situation. However, the status of the believers is elevated when they come together and attend a single group prayers so that the greatness of the jama'ah can be expressed.

Question 564: What is your rule regarding a person or people who come to a mosque just to read the prayers as furada just to demonstrate that they do not consider the prayers leader as adil or capable of leading a group prayers?

A: This is not correct and one is not allowed to weaken the group prayers. Nor is anybody allowed to show disrespect and insult towards the group prayers leader who people consider adil.

Question 565: There are many mosques in our area and group prayers takes place in all of them. There is a house between the two mosques. On one side between the house and the mosque there are ten other houses while in the direction of the other mosque, the distance is of only two houses. A group prayers takes place in this house. What is your ruling regarding this group prayers?

A: Group prayers should take place to create unity and closeness not to cause disunity and division. The neighboring houses are permitted to start a group prayers as long as it does not become a cause of division and conflict.

Question 566: Is an individual allowed to lead group prayers without the permission of the appointed [ratib] prayers leader who has been appointed by the organization of the mosque?

A: Holding group prayers is not dependent on the permission of permanent [ratib] prayers leader. However, if the Imam is present in the mosque at the time of the prayers then he should not be obstructed from leading it. If he is obstructed then that action could be defined as forbidden if it become a cause of division and ignites conflict.

Question 567: Does the adalah of a group prayers leader become void if he says something which is not good or makes a joke which is not appropriate for a scholar of Islam?

A: This is a thing which has to be identified at the hands of the people who are following that imam. If that which he has said does not contradict Islamic law and it does not go against local standards, then it has no effect on the adalah.

Question 568: Is one allowed to start one's prayers behind a group prayers leader about whom one has no information and does not know?

A: One is permitted to start one's prayers behind a person when the adalah is established in front of one who is following, through what ever means available. The group prayers would be considered correct.

Question 569: A person considers another person as adil and pious and at the same time considers him as an oppressor because on certain occasions he has oppressed people. So can this person consider the other as adil in the common sense of the word?

A: Until it is not clear about the person, whom he has considered an oppressor nor has this been established that he excuse for its performance, then the person is not permitted to label the other person as an oppressor.

Question 570: Is one permitted to read one's prayers behind a person whose name one does not know and has not seen?

A: One is permitted to start one's prayers behind a person once one has become certain about the individual's adalah, through what ever means possible.

Question 571: Can one pray behind a person who has the ability to encourage others to do good and prevent them from doing bad but he does not do that?

A: The mere abstention from encouraging people to do good, which in itself could be determined by acceptable reasons in front of the person who has this duty to perform, does not become a cause for invalidating the person's adalah. Nor does it become an obstruction for others from performing prayers behind that person.

Question 572: What is the meaning of adalah in your opinion?

A: It is an innate condition which arises due to one's piety. It prevents one from doing things which would be considered forbidden according to Islamic law. It is sufficient in recognizing the state of adalah that one sees the goodness which provides an element of authenticity for the adalah.

Question 573: We are a group of youngsters who sit in a group in gatherings and when ever it is time for prayers, we appoint one among ourselves who is adil and perform prayers behind him. There are some who confront us and say that according to Imam Khomeini's ruling, our actions are forbidden because one should not perform prayers behind a person who is not a scholar of Islamic studies? What is obligatory for us?

A: My dear friends, whenever it is possible and easy to go and perform prayers behind a person whom you consider competent to perform prayers behind, then you should initially go to that mosque in the area. Otherwise, one is permitted to read behind one who is not a scholar of Islamic studies. However, in some cases it would be wrong to consider not to start behind one who is not an Islamic scholar.

Question 574: Can a group prayers be conducted by two people?

A: If you mean that one is the imam and the other is the ma'mum [follower], then there is no problem in that.

Question 575: A person recites the Hamd and the other chapter in zuhr and asr prayers while performing prayers in jama'ah. He does this knowingly that the two prayers become void but only does it to save himself from drifting away from the prayers. What is the ruling regarding his prayers?

A: It is obligatory on the person who is in the prayers being recited silently, like the zuhr and the asr, to remain silent when the imam is reciting the Hamd and the other chapter. One is not permitted to recite anything even if it is to protect oneself from drifting away mentally in one's prayers.

Question 576: What is your ruling regarding a group prayers leader who complies with all the regulations of driving and goes to lead the prayers by motorcycle?

A: This action does not have any effect on the person's adalah nor does it determine the validity of prayers leadership. The only time it would be considered otherwise is when this action appears to be against the dignity specified in the eyes of the people in that area.

Question 577: When we are unable to meet the group prayers to acquire the reward[thawab] of the jama'ah, we join it by saying takbirat al-ihram and sitting down. We remain seated until the imam reads the tashahhud and salam. When he completes this, we get up and then do our first rak'ah. The question is that can we follow this procedure in the second rak'ah of a four rak'ah prayers and join it in its tashahhud?

A: The above mentioned procedure is specific to the final rak'ah of the group prayers so that one is able to acquire the reward of the jama'ah.

Question 578: Is the group prayers leader permitted to take a salary for performing prayers?

A: He is not permitted.

Question 579: Can a leader of id prayers, or rather, of any prayers perform two sets of prayers at one particular time?

A: The group prayers leader for the five daily prayers is permitted to perform the prayers in the form of a group prayers for another group of ma'mums [those who perform prayers behind the prayers leader] in the ada' form. In fact this is highly recommended. However, id prayers cannot be repeated with the intention of ada'.

Question 580: Does a person have to read the Hamd chapter and another chapter when he is doing his second rak'ah while the group prayers leader is in his third or fourth rak'ah of isha' prayers?

A: It is obligatory on the person to read them silently.

Question 581: After completion of prayers, the verses which declares salawaat [salutions] on the Holy Prophet (s) is recited. After that, the praying persons send three salutions to the Holy Prophet (s) and his Household (a). After that they say three Allahu Akbar and tehn shout political slogans (i.e. supplications are said with high voice and are repeated by the believers). Is there any problem in this?

A: Not only is there no problem reading the verses which declares salutions on Prophet Muhammad (s) and his Household (s), but it is also required and is common practice and yields thawab [rewards]. It is necessary that one shouts out islamic and revolutionary slogans at the same time because it reminds all of the message and aims of the Islamic revolution and fulfills the requirement.

Note: In the part "islamic and revolutionary slogans" in the arabic original there is also written "and dissociation" from enemies, which is not exactly translated into the english version.

Question 582: An individual arrives at the mosque when the jama'ah is in its second rak'ah. Due to his ignorance about Islamic rules he does not perform the tashahhud and the qunut which were obligatory on him to do in the following rak'ah. Is that prayers correct or not?

A: The prayers is correct but it is necessary for you to perform the outstanding tashahhud which has to be performed by means of Sajdat al-Sahw.

Question 583: Does one need to acquire the permission to follow the person behind whom one wants to read one's prayers? Can one read or start one's prayers behind a person who is himself being lead in the prayers?

A: One does not need the permission from the prayers leader to follow him in the prayers. It is not correct to start one's prayers behind he who is himself being led in the prayers.

Question 584: There are two people and between them they select one as the imam and the other follows him in the prayers. A third person enters and starts his prayers behind the one who was following thinking that he was the imam. After the prayers finished, the person realized that the person was not the imam but in fact one who was following the imam. What is the rule regarding the prayers of the third person?

A: To start one's prayers behind someone who is himself following an imam is not correct. However, if one start one's prayers behind such a person due to ignorance and in the ruku' and sujud he fulfills all requirements without increasing anything intentionally or accidentally, then the prayers will be considered correct and valid.

Question585: Is it correct to perform one's maghrib prayers behind one who intends to perform isha' prayers?

A: There is no problem in that.

Question 586: Does prayers become void when the imam sits at a higher position than those who are following him and it is not taken into account?

A: If the place where the imam is standing is so high that it is not justifiable then this would become the cause for the invalidation of the prayers.

Question 587: One of the lines of the group prayers was made up completely of people who were travelers. Then after them was a line of people who perform their prayers complete. If the front line then finishes its prayers after two rak'ahs then stands up to offer the next prayers, then would the prayers of the line behind them be considered correct?

A: In the above situation, the group prayers of the line behind would be questionable when the line in front of them is completely reading the prayers as qasr. According to precaution, it would be necessary to change the status of prayers to furada once the line in front sits down to say the salam [the closing salutations in the prayers].

Question 588: Is it permissible for one who is joining the line at the end of it to enter the prayers prior to those between himself and the imam?

A: When the followers between that person and the imam show that they are getting ready to enter the prayers after imam has made his niyyah, then that person is permitted to enter the jama'ah.

Question 589: A person enters a jama'ah in the third rak'ah thinking that the imam is in the first and does not read anything. Does this person have to repeat the prayers?

A: If he realizes this before ruku' then it will be obligatory on him to recite the chapter. If he happens to realize it after ruku', then the prayers will be correct and there will be no need to do anything. Even though, according to precaution, it is preferable that the person performs two Sajadat al-Sahw for missing out the recitation.

Question 590: There is a great need for group prayers leaders so that jama'ah can be performed in governmental offices, schools, etc. Furthermore, with the exception of me, there is nobody else in this area. That is why I perform one obligatory prayers several times at different places. All marja's have permitted that a group prayers leader can lead two group prayers. Can one lead anything more than that with the intention of performing qaza' prayers according to precaution?

A: That which has been read in one group prayers can be performed again in another one. To repeat this more than once is a problem. And according to precaution, it is not correct to perform group prayers with the intention of qaza' prayers.

Question 591: A college arranges a group prayers for its staff in a building within the complex of the college. This is quite close to the town's mosque and they are fully aware that at the same time there is a group prayers held in the mosque. What would the rule be regarding one's participation in the group prayers being conducted in the college? Can the rule change when the administration demands or forces people to participate in the prayers or not?

A: It would be no problem for the followers of a jama'ah to participate in a group prayers which fulfills all the conditions necessary for one, to recite one's prayers behind anybody. Even though this may be close to the mosque where a group prayers is taking place at the same time. However, there is no Islamic rule which allows for force to be used to compel somebody to take part in group prayers.

Question 592: Is it permissible to read one’s prayers behind a person who is a judge but has not reached the stage of ijtihad?

A: When his performance as an appointed judge is based on a correct and valid appointment then to perform prayers behind him is not a problem.

Question 593: What is your rule about a follower of Imam Khomeini (q) performing prayers behind an imam who follows somebody else other than Imam? Particularly with regards to the performance of Friday prayers.

A: The difference in taqlid is no obstacle for one to correctly start behind someone. However, it is not correct to read behind an imam in a prayers which should be offered as qasr in front of the verdict of the individual’s marja’ when it is being read as complete by the imam.

Question 594: What show the follower do if the imam accidentally goes in to ruku’ immediately after saying takbirat al-ihram?

A: If one who is following realizes this `fter entering the group prayers, then one should do the intention of offering the prayers in furada [individually] and then read Hamd and the other chapter oneself.

Question 595: What is the rule regarding group prayers when there are immature students standing in the third and fourth line and there adults stand after them?

A: There is no problem with regards to the above mentioned example.

Question 596: A group prayers leader performs tayammum in place of janabah bath because he is unable to do otherwise. Is it sufficient for the purpose of prayers leadership?

A: If the inability is justifiable by Islamic law, then he can perform prayers in jama’ah after performing janabah bath. It would also be permissible to start one’s prayers behind such a person.

Rule Of Incorrect Recitation By Group Prayers Leader

Question 597: Is there any difference in the ruling regarding the pronunciation and recitation undertaken by the imam and those following him? Or do the rules apply to both in the same manner with regards to its correctness?

A: When one’s pronunciations are not correct and does not have the ability to improve on them, then the prayers performed is considered correct. However, it is not correct for others to follow behind such a person in their prayers.

Question 598: Some group prayers leaders are unable to pronounce some letters properly. Is it therefore correct to perform prayers behind such a person? Some people say that it is obligatory to recite one’s prayers in group. Then it is necessary to repeat the prayers which was performed in the congregation on one’s own. However, I do not have the time to repeat these prayers. What is my duty in this situation. Do I have the permission to recite the Hamd and the other chapter silently while participating in the prayers?

A: If the opinion of the person following the imam is that the imam is not pronouncing properly, then to perform prayers behind would not be valid and would cause the group prayers to be void for him. If the person does not have the ability to repeat the prayers then he should not join the group prayers. There is no problem is no problem in not joining up with the prayers. To read silently while giving the impression that one is in the group prayers is not correct and nor is it permissible.

Question 599: Some people suggest that the pronunciation of some Friday prayers leaders is not correct or they are unable to pronounce the letters in the manner by which one would be able to count them as a word. Or they change the signs and give it one which does not count as its. Is it correct to read one’s prayers behind such a person without repeating those which have ready been performed behind him?

A: In recitation, the standard is that the words should be pronounce from their appropriate places in the throat in such a manner that those who understand the language are able to recognize the word and not confuse it for another. This is determined by the standards identified by the scholars of Arabic. Consequently, if the follower finds that the leader’s pronunciations do not meet the specified standards then this is not correct and it is not right for them to perform prayers behind him. If they perform prayers behind him knowingly, then their prayers is not correct and it would be obligatory on them to repeat it.

Question 600: What is the rule regarding the prayers of one following a group prayers leader and during it one doubts about a pronunciation after the time had passed and completed the prayers? Later one realizes that there was in fact an error in the pronunciation.

A: The prayers is correct.

Question 601: What is the religious duty of an individual regarding a Qur’an teacher who is a group prayers leader but reads his prayers wrongly according to the rules of Qur’anic recitation? At times when he does not come he is subjected to much insult?

A: If he followers consider the recitation to be incorrect, then the conclusion would be that his prayers is also incorrect in the opinion of those following him. They would not be able to perform prayers behind him in that situation. However, there would be no problem in taking part in the prayers to fulfill a requirement based on that which would be most logically and intellectually acceptable.

Group Prayers Leadership By A Disabled Person

Question 602: What is the rule about performing prayers behind an imam who may possess the following defect: He has not had any parts of his body amputated but because of the fact that his legs are crippled he is unable to stand up without the help of the wall; His injuries include the amputation of a part or whole of his finger of the hand or feet; His injuries involve the absence of all the fingers from the hands or feet or both; His injuries relate to a part of the hand or feet or both being absent; and His injuries involve the absence of a part of the body which causes the person to ask for assistance when performing wuzu’?

A: Generally speaking there is no problem in starting prayers behind one who can maintain a standing position, keeps it during the recitation and action of the prayers, has the ability to perform a complete ruku’ and a complete sajdah on the seven parts of the body and is able to perform a correct wuzu’. This has to comply with all the other conditions appropriate for a group prayers leader. If this is not possible then it is not correct nor is it permissible.

Question 603: I am a student of Islamic studies. My right hand had to be removed due to an operation. After a while I came to realize that Imam Khomeini (q) did not consider it correct that a person who has part or parts of his body amputated leading prayers for people who are complete. I would be grateful if you would advice me about the rule regarding the prayers of those who read their prayers behind me during this period?

A: The previous prayers of those who followed you is correct because they did their prayers behind you not knowing the shar’i command. They would not have to repeat it nor consider them as qaza’.

Question 604: I am a student of Islamic studies and during the defense in the war against the Islamic Republic of Iran fingers of my feet were injured. The big toe is not injured at all. At present I am leading prayers at one of the Husayniyyahs [a type of religious centers ]. Is there any religious problem in this or not? I am hopeful that you will give me an explanation for my problem.

A: With in the information available there is no problem for you to perform prayers in jama’ah when you are able to keep the big toe on the ground while performing the sajdah.

Women’s Attendance At Group Prayers

Question 605: Has the Faith encouraged women to take part in congregational and Friday prayers in mosques in the same way as it has done in the case of men? Or is it considered more preferable for the women to perform prayers at home.

A: If women go there to attend group prayers, then there is no problem in that. They would acquire the rewards for performing prayers in jama’ah.

Question 606: When can a woman be regarded as a group prayers leader?

A: A woman can be considered as a group prayers leader for women.

Question 607: If women are permitted to be present at group prayers, then what are the rules regarding the recommendedness [istihbab] and undesirability [karahah] state of this action? What are the rules if women stand behind men? Do women need to have something separating them from the men when they are standing behind them? Is there any need for something to hind the women when they are reading prayers along side the men? It must be noted that by separating women from men, even when they are behind the men, while they are participating in the prayers and listening the speech, one is attacking the respectability and dignity of women.

A: There is no problem in women’s attendance at group prayers. There is no need for anything to separate the women from the men if they are stand at the back of the men. However, if women are performing prayers along side men, then there is a need for something to separate them to eradicate the karahah arising due to the association of men with women. It is wrong to assume that the separation which is requires is to reduce the status and dignity of women. This is merely and assumption and not something which is big. Furthermore, it is incorrect to enter one’s own opinion in matters of fiqh.

Question 608: How should the lines between the men and women meet when there is no curtain between?

A: Women can stand behind men without any separation between them.

Performing Group Prayers Behind Sunnis

Question 609: Is it permissible to do one's prayer in a Sunni group prayers?

A: It is permitted to perform one's prayers in jama'ah behind them to create greater harmony with them.

Question 610: I work in an area which is predominately Kurdish. Most Friday and group prayers leaders in that area are Sunni. What is the rule with respect to performing prayers in jama’ah behind them? Is one permitted to do their ghibah [backbiting]?

A: There is no problem in attending the prayers with them in their Friday and group prayers. As far as ghibah is concerned, one should refrain from it.

Question 611: I live and meet with people who are Sunni and perform the daily prayers with them. On certain occasions I practice according to them e.g. cross my arms, perform prayers at their times and do sajdah on that which they do their sajdah on?

A: If harmony demands of you to perform the prayers in that manner, then it is correct and permissible. This would even to the extent of performing sajdah at the place where they do thier sajdah, etc. If it does not, then it would not be permissible to perform prayers with them with your arms crossed. This would only be permitted if the conditions necessitate such actions.

Question 612: In Mecca and Medina we perform prayers in jama’ah with the Sunni brethren relying on the verdict of Imam Khomeini (q). On certain occasions to acquire greater rewards [thawab] of performing prayers in a mosque, we perform our asr and isha’ after zuhr and maghrib prayers. We perform prayers in Sunnis’ mosques without earth and perform our sajdah on the prayers mats. What is the ruling for such a prayers?

A: The prayers would be considered correct within the situation explained above.

Question 613: Can we the shi’is attend Sunnis’ prayers in other cities when they perform their prayers with their arms crossed? Would it be necessary for us to follow them in our prayers by keeping our arms crossed or should we perform prayers with our arms open?

A: It is permissible to perform one’s prayers with Sunnis when it is required for greater harmony. The prayers which are performed with them are correct and permissible but one is not permitted to close or cross one’s arms. This is only permissible if conditions necessitate such actions.

Question 614: It is necessary in Sunnis’ group prayers that the participants touch each their toes with the toes of the next person while standing in jama’ah. What is the rule regarding this when they consider this a necessity?

A: This is not obligatory but doing this does not invalidate the prayers.

Question 615: The Sunni brethren do their maghrib prayers prior to maghrib call for prayers. Is it correct during the occasion of Hajj or on other occasions to perform our prayers with them and consider that prayers sufficient?

A: It is not certain whether they actually do their prayers prior to the time. However, if the person is not certain that it is time for prayers then it is not correct for the person to join it. However, if one intends to uphold greater harmony, then one would be permitted to join in the prayers at that time and he would be allowed to consider that prayers sufficient and there is no problem in that.

Friday [Jumu’ah] Prayers

Question 616: What is your opinion regarding one’s participation in Friday prayers? During this period of time when the Twelfth Imam is in occultation, is it obligatory or not on some to attend Friday prayers when they do not believe the Friday prayers leader to be adil?

A: Today, even though Friday prayers is considered a takhyiri [selective] obligation [an obligatory duty which is fulfilled by the performance of one of two specified duties ] during this period of time and it is not considered obligatory on people to participate in it, one should not deprive oneself of the blessings of the prayers solely due to doubt in the adalah of the imam or due to irrelevant excuses.

Question 617: What is meant by takhyiri [selective] obligation in the case of the issue concerning Friday prayers?

A: The performance of this prayers as a takhyiri obligation means that one has a choice to perform either Friday prayers or zuhr prayers.

Question 618: What is your opinion regarding someone who does not participate in Friday prayers and does not show any interest and concern to it?

A: One is religiously denounced when one does not attend or participate in this religious and political duty of Friday prayers due to lack of interest or concern to it.

Question 619: There are some people who do not take part in Friday prayers because they do not consider it important or have their own baseless opinion about it. What is your opinion about this?

A: It is not religiously acceptable, to make oneself permanently absent from Friday prayers even though it may be a takhyiri obligation.

Question 620: Is it permissible to perform zuhr prayers in froup at the same time as Friday prayers, at `nother place near the place where Friday prayers is being held.

A: In itself, there is no problem in doing this and the followers would have fulfilled their duties because the Friday prayers in considered a takhyiri obligation during our present time. However, performing the zuhr in group on Friday close to where Friday prayers is proceeding becomes a cause of division for the believers. Often such a group prayers shows signs of insult and disrespect for Friday prayers leader and through this a neglect for Friday prayers is expressed. That is why it is not recommended that the believers should initiate zuhr prayers in group. In fact if due to this, there are corrupt and forbidden conclusions, it would be necessary to abstain from it.

Question 621: Can the Friday prayers leader read his zuhr in the time between Friday and asr prayers? Furthermore, is one allowed to recite one’s asr prayers behind another person rather than the Friday prayers leader?

A: Friday prayers discharges one from the obligation to perform zuhr prayers. There is no problem in performing zuhr prayers according to precaution. When one wants to recite the asr prayers in jama’ah, then the absolute caution is that one reads it behind ad individual who has read the zuhr after Friday prayers according to precaution.

Question 622: Are the followers allowed to read their zuhr prayers when the prayers leader does not perform it after finishing Friday prayers?

A: He is permitted to read his zuhr prayers.

Question 623: Is it obligatory on Friday prayers leader to acquire permission from Hakim al-Shar’? Does the rule apply to other places which are far away?

A: The leadership of Friday prayers does not depend on permission. However, if it is a necessity that the leadership be by appointment of the Leader of Muslims. This rule applies to all countries and towns where the command of the Leader applies and people are obedient to his rule.

Question 624: Can an appointed Friday prayers leader lead a Friday prayers in a place where he has not been appointed? Particularly when there is no reason for him to move from the place where he has been appointed.

A: For him to lead a Friday prayers in another place is permissible. However, the commands and rules relating to an appointment from the Jurist Leader [wali faqih] would not be applicable.

Question 625: Does a temporary Friday prayers leader need to be appointed by the Jurist Leader? Or does the permanent Friday prayers leader have the right himself to appoint people as temporary Friday prayers leader?

A: The Friday prayers leader has the right to appoint anybody as temporary Friday prayers leader. However, that leadership does not carry the commands and rules applicable to an appointment from the Jurist Leader.

Question 626: If the follower does not consider the appointed Friday prayers leader as adil or has doubt in his adalah, then is the person allowed to perform his prayers behind him just to maintain the unity of the Muslims? Furthermore, can a person who does not attend the Friday prayers discourage others from attending it?

A: It is not correct for a person to perform prayers behind another person who he does not consider adil or has doubt about his adalah. Nor would his group prayers be considered correct. However, for the sake of Islamic unity, there is no problem in joining the group prayers. The other person who does not take part in the Friday prayers is not allowed, under any circumstances, to discourage others from joining the prayers. Nor are others allowed to make people against him.

Question 627: What is the rule regarding participation in Friday prayers when it is established that the Friday prayers leader is a liar?

A: Solely the contradiction in the speech of the Friday prayers leader is no evidence. It is possible that he may have made a mistake, an error of judgment or even taken the side of tawriyah [justified lie]. A supposition does not invalidate the adalah [decency ] of an Friday prayers leader . One should not deprive oneself of the blessings of Friday prayers.

Question 628: Is it necessary for the followers to check about or establish the adalah of the Friday prayers leader who has been appointed by Imam Khomeini (q) or an adil Jurist Leader? Or just the fact that he is appointed for the leadership of Friday prayers is sufficient to determine the adalah?

A: If the appointment for the leadership of Friday prayers establishes trustworthiness and adalah for those following, then it is permissible for them to perform prayers behind him.

Question 629: Should the group prayers leader of a mosque be selected by the trusted scholars? Or being appointed as the imam of Friday prayers by the Jurist Leader, determine that he is adil. Or is it necessary that the individual’s adalah should be investigated?

A: If the appointment makes those following the Friday or group prayers leader certain about the adalah, then it is permissible for them to follow the person based on that appointment.

Question 630: Is it necessary to repeat the performed prayers which one read after a doubt about the adalah of the Friday prayers leader, or God forbid, establishing certainty about the imam not being adil?

A: If the doubt about the imam$B!G(Bs adalah or the certainty about the lack of adalah is acquired after completing the prayers, then it is not obligatory to repeat the prayers.

Question 631: What is the rule regarding one's participation in Friday prayers performing in Europe and other places conducted by university students who are predominantly from Islamic countries? Those participating in it and the Friday prayers leaders are usually Sunni brothers?

A: There is no problem in it when it is to safeguard unity and Muslim solidarity.

Question 632: In one of the cities of Pakistan there has been a Friday prayers for nearly 40 years. Now a person has started another one without taking into consideration the necessary shar’i distance [masafah] between the two Congregations. This has created a conflict between the people who come for prayers. What are the shar’i rulings regarding this situation?

A: It is not permissible for one to create such a situation, thereby causing a conflict and separation between those performing prayers. Specially when it is related to the Friday prayers which is a sign of Islam and the strength of the unity of Muslims.

Question 633: It was announced by the speaker [khatib] of Ja’fariyyah jami’ mosque in Rawalpindi that Friday prayers will not take place there due to construction work, Now that the work is finished, we have come face to face with a problem. At a distance of more than 4 Kilometers a Friday prayers has been started in another mosque. Taking the distance into consideration, would be correct to do the Friday prayers in the mentioned mosque?

A: When the distance between the two Friday prayers does not fulfill the one parasang shar’i rule, it would be considered wrong to start a prayers after or together with it

Question 634: Could one perform Friday prayers which is held in jama’ah, individually [furada] by performing it next to those who are performing it in jama’ah?

A: One of the requirements of Friday prayers is that it should be performed in jama’ah. Therefore, Friday prayers will not be valid if said individually.

Question 635: When a mukallaf whose duty is to make qasr, wants to perform prayers in group behind an imam leading Friday prayers, will this action of his be valid?

A: Friday prayers said by a traveler will be valid if he performs it as a ma’mum, and discharge his obligation to perform zuhr prayers.

Question 636: Is it obligatory to mention Hazrat Zahra’s (a) name as an Imam of Muslims in the second sermon, or is it obligatory to mention her name with the intent of istihbab?

A: The concept of Imams of Muslims does not apply to al-Zahra al-Marziyyah (a), and it is not obligatory to mention her blessed name in the Friday sermon, but there is no problem in seeking blessing through mentioning her noble name (a).

Question 637: Could a ma’mum perform an obligatory prayers other than Friday prayers behind a prayers leader who is performing Friday prayers?

A: The validity of such a prayers is problematic.

Question 638: Is it correct to make the two sermons of Friday prayers before the time of shar’i noon?

A: It is permissible to make them before the zawal (that is, the time when the sun crosses the meridian) of the sun in such a way that they are over by the time of the zawal.

Question 639: If a ma’mum who has not been present during any of the two sermons joins the prayers, joins the prayers behind the imam after it is started, will his prayers be valid and discharge him of his obligation?

A: His prayers will be valid and sufficient if he joins the imam even in one rak’ah, by joining during the ruku’ of the last rak’ah of the Friday prayers.

Question 640: In our city, Friday prayers is held one and a half hour after the call [azan] for zuhr prayers. Do these prayers discharge us of our obligation to perform zuhr prayers, or is it necessary to perform zuhr prayers too?

A: The time of Friday prayers begins when the sun begins to descend [zawal], and it is more accordant with precaution not to delay it until the lapse of the normal [urfi] beginnings of the zawal. It is not improbable that the time of Friday prayers extends until the length of the shade resulting after the noon reaches two sevenths of a person’s height. If Friday prayers is not performed until this time, the more precautions option will be to perform zuhr prayers instead of it.

Question 641: It was not possible for an individual to go to Friday prayers. May he perform zuhr and asr prayers at the time’s beginning, or is it obligatory for him to wait until the end of Friday prayers and then perform his prayers?

A: Waiting is not obligatory, and he may perform the zuhrayn [zuhr and asr prayers] at the time’s beginning.

Question 642: If the appointed Friday prayers leader is well and present on the cite, may he order the temporary Friday prayers leader to perform Friday prayers? May the appointed Friday prayers leader perform prayers behind the temporary one?

A: There is no problem either in performing Friday prayers under the imamah of the deputy of the appointed imam, nor in the appointed imam’s iqtida’ of his deputy during it.

The Two Id Prayers

Question 643: What kind of obligatory duties are the two id prayers in your opinion?

A: The two id prayers are not obligatory but recommended in the present period. As for Friday prayers, they are obligatory by the way of takhyir [choice].

Question 644: Does any increase or decrease in the qunut of id prayers make them invalid?

A: Prayers are not invalidated by this.

Question 645: In the past, every prayers leader used to perform Id al-Fitr prayers in his mosque. Is it permissible for prayers leaders in the current period to hold the two id prayers?

A: It is permissible for the representatives of the Jurist Leader who are allowed by him to hold id prayers, and also for the Friday prayers leaders who have been appointed by him, to hold id prayers in jama’ah during the current period. As for any other individual, it is close to precaution for him to perform them in furada, and it does not matter if he performs them in jama’ah on the intent of raja’, not wurud. If it is deemed exigent that only one id prayers be held in a city, preferably it should not be performed by anyone other than the imam of Friday prayers appointed by the Jurist Leader.

Question 646: Is there any qaza’ for the Id al-Fitr prayers?

A: It does not have any qaza’.

Question 647: Does Id al-Fitr prayers have any iqamah?

A: It does not have any iqamah.

Question 648: If a prayers leader recites iqamah for Id al-Fitr prayers, what will be the rule of his prayers and that of others?

A: It harms neither id prayers of the imam nor that of the ma’mums.

Traveler’s Prayers

Question 649: Does the obligatoriness of qasr by the traveler apply to all obligatory prayers or is it limited to some of them?

A: The obligatoriness of qasr specifically applies to the daily four rak’ah prayers, i.e., zuhrayn and isha’. As for the subh and the maghrib, qasr does not apply to them.

Question 650: What are the conditions for the obligatoriness of qasr of the four rak’ah prayers on the traveler?

A: It has eight conditions: First, the traveled distance should be at least eight continuous shar’i

parasangs, either going or returning, or together, provided that the distance while going is not less than four parasangs. Second, the intent to travel the distance should exist from the time of departure. Hence if one does not intent to cover the distance, or intends a shorter one and intends to travel to another place after reaching his destination, whose distance from the first destination is less than the shar’i distance, but more than the shar’i distance from his home, one will not make qasr. Third, the continuation of intent until the distance is covered. Thus if one changes his intention before covering four parasangs, or hesitates, the rule of travel will not apply to him after that, but the prayers which he performed in qasr before changing his intention will be valid. Fourth, that there be no intention to interrupt one’s journey while covering the distance by passing through one’s hometown, or by intending to stay ten days or more. Fifth, that the journey be a lawful one according to Islamic law. Thus if the journey is a sinful or unlawful one, whether it is such in itself, like fleeing from battle, or its purpose is haram, such as traveling to commit highway robbery, for example, the rule of the traveler will not apply to it. Sixth, that the traveler be not one of those who live a migrant life, like some Bedouins who do not have a fixed location and wander through deserts and disembark near water, grass and pastures. Seventh, that traveling should not be one’s job, such as a hirer of animals of burden, driver, sailor, and so on. One whose job is done in traveling is also treated like the aforementioned. Eighth, reaching the tarakhkhus limit, namely the point from where one cannot hear the town’s azan or see its walls.

Someone For Whom Traveling Is A Job Or A Job Requirement [Muqaddimah]

Question 651: Should a person for whom traveling is a preliminary part of his job perform his prayers in full while traveling, or is this rule only for someone whose job is traveling? What do marja’s such as Imam Khomeini (q) mean by the phrase "one whose job is traveling." Is there anyone for whom traveling itself is his job? Because the jobs of a shepherd, a driver, a sailor, etc. are to look after the sheep, or to drive, or to sail, respectively. Basically, there is no one whose job is traveling as such.

A: Whoever has to travel as a preliminary part of his job and, at least once during every ten days, has to go back and forth between his home and place of work, he should perform his prayers in full and his fasting will be valid. The phrase "one whose job is traveling," in the statements of Islamic jurists, may God be pleased with them, means someone whose job itself involves traveling, like the jobs mentioned in the question.

Question 652: What rule applies to the prayers and fasting of a person whose job is to travel, like the driver, sailor, and one who rents animals of burden, etc.?

A: His prayers are without qasr, and his fasts kept while traveling are valid.

Question 653: What rule applies to the prayers and fasting of someone whose job is done in traveling, such as an employee who travels to his office, a worker who travels to his work place, and the like?

A: If he travels to the place of his job and work, for work’s sake, at least once in every ten days, his rule will be that of one whose job is to travel, in terms of the validity of his fasting and the obligatoriness of performing the prayers in full.

Question 654: There are people who take residence in a certain city for a period exceeding a year, such as soldiers who have to reside in a city for one or two years in order to complete their military service. Is it obligatory on them to make the niyyah of iqamah after each travel so that they can perform their prayers in full and fast? What rule will apply to their prayers and fasting if they intend to stay for less than ten days?

A: According to the assumption in the question, their rule is the rule of other travelers, namely qasr in prayers and invalidity of fasting, as long as they do not intend to stay for ten days.

Question 655: What rule will apply to prayers and fasting in the case of fighter pilots who, on most days, fly from their air bases and travel a distance much exceeding the shar’i distance and return again?

A: Their rule in this regard is the rule of car drivers, sailors, and pilots: during their travels their prayers shall be full-length and their fasting valid.

Question 656: For the tribes which move from their settlements for one or two months and live in summer or winter resorts for the rest of the year, are these two places (summer and winter resorts) considered their watans?

A: If they intend to continue going back and forth, permanently, between the summer and the winter resorts, to spend some days of the year in one and other days in the other one, and choose both places as their permanent settlements, each of the two will be regarded as a watan for them, and the watan’s rule will apply to them with respect to each of the two settlements. If the distance between the two watans equals or exceeds the shar’i distance, while traveling from one watan to another, their rule will be that of other travelers.

Question 657: I am an employee at a government office in the city, and the distance between my work place and residence is about 35km. Everyday I travel this distance to reach my work place How am I to perform my prayers when I have a special assignment and intend to stay in the city for several nights? Is it obligatory to perform my prayers in full-length? If, for example, I travel to the city of Semnen on Friday to visit my relatives, is it obligatory to perform full prayers?

A: If the journey is not for the sake of your job for which you travel daily, the rule of traveling for work will not apply to it. But if the journey is for the sake of the job itself, and during it you do other things in the place of your work, such as visiting relatives and friends, and sometimes you stay there for one or more nights, the rule of traveling for work will not change because of it, and you will perform your prayers in full and fast.

Question 658: If I do certain personal work at my place of work after the time of my official assignment for which I have traveled (for example, I do my office work from 7a.m. till 2p.m. and do personal work after 2p.m.), what will be the rule of my prayers and fasting?

A: Doing personal work during travel for official assignment, after completing the office work, does not change the rule of travel for official assignment.

Question 659: What rule applies to the prayers and fasting of the soldiers who know they will stay in a certain location for more than ten days, but have no control over their own affairs and situation? Please clarify Imam Khomeini’s (q) verdict too.

A: As on the basis of the assumption in the question they are sure that they will stay for ten days or more, it is obligatory on them to perform their prayers in full and fast. This is also the Imam’s verdict.

Question660: What rule will apply to prayers and fasting in the case of the personnel of the army, or the Islamic Revolution’s Guards Corps, who stay for more than ten days in garrisons and in border areas? Please explain the Imam’s (q) verdict also.

A: If they decide to stay more than ten days in a location, or know that they will be doing so, it will be obligatory on them to perform their prayers in full and to fast. This is the Imam’s verdict also.

Question 661: During the blessed month of Ramazan, I resided in a certain place from where we had to travel for inspection to other places at a distance equal to tarakhkhus limit. Are prayers full in such a situation, and is it obligatory on me to fast?

A: If you toured by visiting the places you had to inspect in the course of your work, or your visit to those places, at less than the shar’i distance from your residence, occurred after the rule of full prayers applied to you in the place of residence, although by performing a single four-rak’ah prayers there, or if the total time of traveling to those places during the ten days was equal to or less than one-third of a day or night, you should perform prayers in full and fast in the place of residence as well as those places. Otherwise, you should perform prayers in qasr and it will not correct for you to fast there.

Question 662: It is stated in the Imam’s (q) risalah (section on traveler’s prayers, rule no. 1306, the 7th condition ): "It is obligatory on the driver, except on his first journey, to perform prayers in full. As for his first journey, his prayers are qasr even if it takes long." Does the first journey mean the beginning of travel from the watan till returning to it, even if it takes a month or more, and even if during this period, for ten times or more, he carries goods between cities which are not his original watan?

A: His first journey ends on his arrival at the destination for which he left his watan or residence to carry passengers or goods. His return to the starting point is not a part of the journey, unless the purpose of his journey is to carry passengers or goods to the destination and back to the original location.

Question 663: Does the traveler’s rule apply to persons whose permanent job is not driving, but driving has become their duty for a short term, such as soldiers who are charged with driving cars in garrisons etc., or is it obligatory on them to perform full prayers and fast?

A: If driving during the temporary period is ordinarily considered as their job, their rule while doing this job will be that of other drivers.

Question 664: If a driver’s car breaks down and he travels to another city to buy spare parts to repair his car, should he perform prayers in full or in qasr during such a trip, considering that he does not take his car with him?

A: If his job during this trip is not driving, his rule will be that of other travelers.

Rule of Students

Question 665: What rule applied to university students who travel at least two days a week for the sake of studies, or to employees who travel weekly to their jobs? Given that they travel every week but occasionally stay in their original watan for a month during the college or office vacations and they do not travel during this period, will their prayer be qasr during the first journey(according to the rule), when the resume traveling, and full after it?

A: It is obligatory on them to perform their prayers in qasr, and their fasting will not be valid while they are traveling for studies' sake, whether their trip is weekly or daily. As for a person who travels for his job, whether official or private, if he travels back and forth between his watan or residence and his work place at least once in every ten days, beginning from the second trip he should perform his prayers in full and his fasting will also be valid. And if he stays for ten days in the watan, or in another place, between two trips to work, during the first work trip after the ten days he will perform prayers in qasr and will not fast.

Question 666: If a student of religious studies intends to do tabligh [propagation of Islam] as his job, may he perform his prayers in full and fast while traveling? If someone travels for a purpose other than tabligh and guidance or enjoining to ma’ruf and forbidding from munkar, what will be the rule concerning his prayers and fasting?

A: If tabligh, guidance and enjoining to ma’ruf and forbidding from munkar are generally [in urf] considered to be his job, while traveling for that work his rule will be similar to that of others who travel for their jobs. If he occasionally travels for a purpose other than guidance and tabligh, during such a journey his rule will be similar to that of other travelers, namely qasr in prayers and invalidity of fasting.

Question 667: What is the rule of the prayers and fasting of those who travel for an indefinite period, such as the students of religious studies who go to the Hawzah Ilmiyyah, or government employees who are transferred to a certain city for an indefinite period?

A: Their rule, in the place of study or duty, is similar to that of other travelers, namely, qasr of prayers and in validity of fasting, as long as they do not intend to stay for ten days.

Question 668: A student studies outside his watan and returns weekly to his watan, and there is a shar’i distance between the two locations. Are his prayers in the place of study qasr or full-length?

A: Traveling for studies is not covered by the rule of traveling for job or work. A student who travels for studies has the same rule as other travelers.

Question 669: A student of religious studies lives in a city which is not his watan, and before making the intent of iqamah he knows in advance, or decides himself, that he would go every week to a mosque near the city. Can he make the intent of iqamah?

A: If at the time of deciding to stay a person intends to leave his staying place for another location at less than the shar’i distance for an hour or more, up to one-third of a day or night, it will not harm the validity of his intent to stay. Determining whether the place he intends to visit is located within his place of residence depends on urf.

Intents Of Traveling The Shar’i Distance And Staying For Ten Days

Question 670: I work in a place which is at less than the shar’i distance from the nearby city. Since none of the two places is my watan, I make the intent to stay ten days in my place of work in order to perform full prayers and fast there. Whenever I decide to stay in my place of work for ten days, I do not intend to leave for the neighboring city during those ten days nor afterwards. What is the shar’i rule in the following situations:
1) If I leave for the city in an emergency or on a business before the end of the ten days, and stop there for about two hours before returning to my place of work?
2) If I leave for the city after the end of the ten days, visiting one of its localities not farther than the shar’i distance, and stay there for a night before returning to my residence?
3) If I leave for the city after ten complete days, intending while going there to visit a certain locality, but I change my mind after reaching it and decide to go to another point which is at more than the shar’i distance from my residence?

A: 1) and 2) After that the rule of full-length prayers applies to a person in the place of residence, though it be by performing at least a single four-rak ‘ah prayers, leaving it for a place less for than the shar’i distance, even for a time longer than one or two hours in one or more days, will not harm it, whether he leaves it before or after completing ten days. Therefore, you should perform full prayers and fast until you start a new journey.
3) The previous rule of iqamah will cease to be apply after deciding to travel a shar’i distance from the point where the intent changed, followed by return to one’s residence after traveling that distance, and it will be necessary after returning to the place of residence to renew the intent of iqamah.

Question 671: If after he has left his watan a traveler passes by a way from where he hears the sound of the azan of his original watan or sees the walls of its houses, will it affect the distance covered?

A: This does not harm the distance covered as long as he does not pass through his watan, and his journey is not discontinued by it. But the traveler’s rule does not apply to him as long as he is there.

Question 672: The place where I live presently is not my original watan, and its distance from my original watan exceeds the shar’i limit. I did not adopt this place of my work as watan, and I might stay there only for some years. Sometimes I leave it for two or three days in a month to make a job-related trip. Is it obligatory on me to make the niyyah to stay for ten days whenever I return `fter leaving this city where I live to travel beyond the shar’i limit? If so, how long is the distance which I may go in the city’s outskirts.

A: Whenever you travel from the city where you live to the shar’i distance, after returning from your trip you will again need to make the niyyah to stay for ten days. If your niyyah to stay for ten days is made validly and the rule of full prayers applies, even by your performing at least a single four-rak’ah prayers, leaving the place of stay for a point within the shar’i distance will not harm the iqamah rule afterwards. Similarly, the intent to visit the city’s orchards and farms during the ten days will not harm the niyyah of iqamah.

Question 673: A person lives four kilometers from his watan for several years, visiting home weekly. What is the rule of his prayers if he travels a distance of 25 km. From his watan and 22 km. From where he had studied for several years?

A: If he intends to cover the distance to the destination from the place of study, which is within the shar’i distance, the traveler’s rule would not apply to the journey. But if he intends to make the journey to the destination from the watan, the traveler’s rule would apply to it.

Question 674: A traveler intends to travel three parasangs, but his intention at the beginning is to travel a parasang along a side road to accomplish some business and then return to the main road to continue his journey. What rule applies to the prayers and fasting of this traveler?

A: The traveler’s rule does not apply to him. It is not sufficient, in order to complete the distance covered, to add his departure from the main road and return to it.

Question 675: In view of the Imam’s verdict concerning the obligatoriness of qasr of prayers and the obligatoriness of breaking the fast when one travels a distance of eight parasangs, if the distance while going is less than four parasangs, but while returning one is forced to cover a distance of six parasangs (due to unavailability of a car or difficulties of the road), should one make qasr in the prayers and break the fast?

A: If the distance while going is less than four parasangs, and the return way alone is not equal to the shar’i distance, he should say full prayers and fast.

Question 676: What is the duty of a person who travels from his residence to another place within the shar’i distance, and several times a week goes from that place to other places, so that the total distance exceeds eight parasangs?

A: If he does not intend to cover that distance when leaving his residence, and the distance between his first destination and his destinations in those places is not equal to the shar’i distance, the traveler’s rule would not apply to him.

Question 677: If one leaves one’s town heading towards a certain place, and on getting there goes around from one place to another, would his going around be added to the distance which he has traveled from his residence?

A: Going about in the place of destination is not counted as part of the distance covered.

Question 678: Is it permissible to include the intention of leaving the place of iqamah, during the period of iqamah, for another place which is less than four parasangs from the place of iqamah?

A: The intention to leave during the ten days for a place at less than the shar‘i distance while making the niyyah of iqamah, will harm the correctness of the intent of iqamah only if the journey is normally [based on urf] considered to violate the ten-day residence in the place of iqamah, such as leaving for a whole day, let alone leaving the place of iqamah every day. But if it is not harmed, such as when leaving once for some hours during day or night, up to one-third of a day or night, or several times for a cumulative period not exceeding one-third of the day or night, his intention will not harm the correctness of the niyyah of iqamah.

Question 679: One who travels to and fro between his place of residence and work, at a distance of more than 24 km from each other, must perform prayers in full. Will his prayers remain full-length if he travels beyond the limits of the city where he works, or to another city, within the shar’i distance and then returns to his place of work before or after noontime?

A: The rule of one’s prayers and fasting in the place of work does not change simply on leaving it for a place within the shar’i distance, even if it is unrelated to the daily work, regardless of whether one returns to the place of work before or after the noon.

Question 680: I am a resident of Esfahan and since some time I have been working in a university at the satellite town of Shahinshahr. The distance between the tarakhkhus limit of Esfahan and shahinshahr’s entrance is less than the masafah (about 20 km), but the distance to the university, which is located on the city’s outskirts, is more than the masafah (about 25 km). Taking into account that the university is located in shahinshahr and my real destination is the university, though my route is through the middle of the city, am I considered a traveler?

A: If the distance between the two cities is less than the shar’i four parasangs, the travelers rule will not apply.

Question 681: I travel every week to the city of Qom on pilgrimage to Hazrat Ma‘sumah’s (a) shrine and also in order to perform the rites of the Jamkaran Mosque. Should I say full prayers or do qasr during these journeys?

A: Your rule during such a journey is similar to that of other travelers concerning the obligatoriness of qasr.

Question 682: I was born in Kashmas and lived in Tehran from 1966 to 1990. Three years ago I came with my family to Bandar Abbas on an official job, and within a year I will return to my watan, Tehran. During the period that I am in Bandar Abbas, I might have to go any time for an assignment to the towns around Bandar Abbas and stay there for a while, without being able to predict the time the official assignment will take. Please firstly clarify the rule which applies to me concerning prayers and fasting. Secondly, taking into consideration that most of the times, or in certain months of the year, I leave on assignments lasting several days, am I considered kathir al-safar [frequent traveler]? Thirdly, what is the shar’i rule concerning the prayers and fasting of my wife who is a housewife born in Tehran and who came to Bandar Abbas and is residing here with me?

A: The rule of your prayers and fasting in your current place of work, which is not your watan, is that of the prayers and fasting of a traveler, namely, qasr of prayers and invalidity of fasting, unless you make the niyyah to stay there for ten days, or if you travel frequently on job-related business at least once in every ten days, a shar’i distance from your place of work. As for your wife who accompanies you in your place of work, if she makes the niyyah to stay there for ten days, she will have to say full prayers and fast; otherwise she should make qasr and it will be invalid for her to fast there.

Question 683: Someone makes niyyah to stay for ten days, either because he knows that he would stay for ten days or decides to do so. Then, after the rule of full prayers applies to him through performing a four-rak’ah prayers, he decides to travel. May he do so, if this travel is not a necessary one?

A: There is no problem in his traveling, even if it is not necessary.

Question 684: What rule will apply to someone who travels on pilgrimage to the shrine of Imam Riza (d) knowing that he will stay there for less than ten days, but makes niyyah to stay for ten days in order to perform his prayers in full?

A: If he knows that he will not stay for ten days, there will be no sense in his making niyyah to stay for ten days, and this niyyah will have no effect, and he should say prayers there in qasr.

Question 685: What is the duty, with respect to prayers being qasr or full, of the employees who are not the city’s residents and never stop there for ten days, but whose journey is less than the shar’i distance?

A: If the distance between their watan and their place of work is equal to the shar’i distance, even by adding the to and fro journey, the rule of the traveler will not apply to them. As for one whose place of work is at shar’i distance from his watan, if he travels even once between them during ten days, it will be obligatory on him to say full prayers; otherwise his rule during the first travel after the ten days will be that of the traveler.

Question 686: How should someone who travels to some place without knowing how long he is going to stop there, whether for ten days or less, say his prayers?

A: He should say prayers in qasr.

Question 687: What rule applies to the prayers and fasting of someone who performs tabligh in two locations and intends to stay in that area for ten days?

A: If they are commonly considered as two locations, it will not be correct for him to make the niyyah of iqamah in both of them, or in one of them as long as he intends to go back and forth between the two during the ten days.

Tarakhkhus Limit

Question 688: In Germany and some other European countries, the distance between some cities(that is, the distance between the exit sign board of one city and the sign board of other's city) is not even a hundred meters, and the houses and streets of the two cities are totally connected to one another. What is the tarakhkhus limit is such cases?

A: Assuming that two cities are connected to each other in the way mentioned in the question, the rule of such cities is similar to that of two localities of a city, in the sense that leaving one for the other is not regarded as traveling so as to consider a tarakhkhos limit.

Question 689: The criterion of the tarakhkhus limit is the visibility of the city’s walls and audibility of its azan. Are both of them together necessary or only one is sufficient?

A: It is closer to precaution [ahwat] to observe both the signs, though it is not improbable that the in audibility of the azan is adequate for determining the tarakhkhus limit.

Question 690: What is the criterion of the tarakhkhus limit, the audibility of the azan from the houses of the area in which the traveler first arrives or from the centre of the city?

A: The criterion is the audibility of the azan at the city’s end in the direction in which the traveler leaves the city or enters it.

Question 691: There is a difference of opinion among the residents of an area concerning the shar’i distance. Some believe that the criterion is the walls of the area’s last houses connected to each other. Some others believe that the distance should be calculated from the factories and companies which are located in a scattered manner beyond the city’s houses. The question is, where does a city end?

A: The determination of a city’s end depends on the commonly held view [urf].

Question 692: We are university students and our college is located in one of the villages of the town of Tabas. Our watan is at 100 km. From the village, which is 5 km. From Tabas. Due to the absence of any boundary between the village and the city, its walls are visible from inside Tabas, but the sound of its azan cannot be heard. If we make niyyah to stay ten days in the village and then go to Tabas for more than two hours, does this disturb our niyyah?

A: The criterion in the invisibility of the walls is the disappearance of the walls themselves and their features. Therefore, visibility of the distant shadows of the walls has no significance. Assuming the invisibility of the village’s walls from Tabas city, if the village is considered a part of the city, or as belonging to the orchards and farms connected to the city and its suburbs, the intention to make visits to the city while making the niyyah of iqamah in the village will not harm that niyyah , and it will be the mukallaf’s duty to figure out the rule’s applicability to a case [mawzu’].

A Travel That Involves Sin

Question 693: If one knows that he will be engaged in sinful and unlawful conduct during the journey he is about to make, will his prayers be full or qasr?

A: If his journey is not for the sake of omitting a wajib or committing a haram, his rule will be that of travelers, namely, qasr in the prayers.

Question 694: If someone travels without the intent to commit a sinful act, but on the way he intends to make his journey for a sinful purpose, will it be obligatory on him to say prayers in qasr or in full? Will the qasr prayers he performs on the way be correct?

A: It will be obligatory on him to perform prayers in full from the time he intends to continue his travel for the sake of a sinful act, and to repeat in full the prayers performed in qasr after continuing the journey for a sinful purpose.

Question 695: What is the rule that applies to a journey made for pleasure, or for purchasing necessities of life, supposing that one will have no access during the journey to a place for praying or carrying out its preliminaries?

A: If he knows that he will have to forsake an obligation relating to his prayers during the journey, the more precautions measure will be to refrain from such a trip, unless that results in a loss or harm.

Rules Regarding The Place Of Residence [Watan]

Question 696: My birthplace is Tehran but my parents are originally from the city of Mahdishahr. Accordingly, they go to Mahdishahr several times a year, and as a dependent I also go along with them. As I do not intend to return to my parents’ town to live there, and am determined to stay in Tehran, what rule will apply to my prayers and fasting?

A: Based on the above assumption, your prayers and fasting in the original watan of your parents will be in accordance with the traveler’s rule.

Question 697: I live six months in one city during the year, and six months in another which is my birthplace as well as my place of residence and that of my family. But my stay in the first city is not continuous, but intermittent. For example, I stay there for two weeks, or ten days or less, then return to my birthplace where my family resides. My question is: Does the traveler’s rule apply to me if I intend to stay in the first city for less than ten days?

A: If that city is not your watan and you do not intend to make it your watan, the traveler’s rule will apply whenever you stay there for less than ten days.

Question 698: I have been living for about 12 years in a city without deciding to make it as my permanent watan. Does this city become my watan? What time is necessary for this city to become my watan? How could I figure out whether the urf considers it to be my watan?

A: A new place of residence does not become watan without the intention to stay there continuously and living there with this intention for some time, or residing there without the intention of continuous stay for so long a period as to be considered one of that area’s residents by the area’s residents.

Question 699: A person’s watan is Tehran. Recently he decided to take residence in one of the towns near Tehran and make it his watan. But, since his daily business and work is in Tehran, he cannot stay in this city for ten days, let alone six months, so that it may become a watan for him. He goes to his work every day and returns at night to this town. What is the rule of his prayers and fasting in this town?

A: After one has decided to make a place one’s new watan and taken up residence there, it is not necessary for one to reside there continuously for a period of six months. It is sufficient, after one’s family has settled there, to return to them and spend the night with them after accomplishing one’s daily job, until one comes to be commonly considered as one of its residents.

Question 700: My wife and I were born in the city of Kashmar. After my employment in a government office, I moved to Neyshabur, while our parents still live in our birthplace. At the beginning of our shifting to Neyshabur we had abandoned our original watan (Kashmar), but fifteen years later we changed our mind. Please answer the following questions: 1) What is our (my wife’s and mine) duty with respect to our prayers whenever we visit our parents and stay with them for several days? 2) What is the duty of our children who were born in our current place of residence (Neyshabur) and reach the age of taklif during our visit to our parents’ town (Kashmar) and in the course of our several days’ stay in Kashmar?

A: After you abandoned on your original watan (kashmar), the rule of watan does not apply to you with respect to it, unless you return to live there again and stay there for a period after making such a niyyah. The rule of watan does not apply to this city for your children also, and the traveler’s rule applies to all of you in that city.

Question 701: Someone has two watans (and so he says full prayers in both places and fasts). Please answer this question: Do the wife and children whom he maintains have to follow their guardian in this matter, or if they may act independently according to their own situation?

A: It is permissible for the wife not to adopt the new watan of her husband as her own, but as for the children, if they are minors, dependent in deciding things and in living, or are subject to their father’s decision with respect to this matter, the new watan of their father will be considered their watan as well.

Question 702: If a mother, to deliver her baby, has to travel to a maternity hospital located outside the watan of the baby’s father, and then she returns after the delivery, where will be the baby’s watan?

A: If the hospital is located in the parents’ watan where they live, the same city will be the baby’s original watan. Otherwise, simply being born in a city is not sufficient to make it his watan; his watan will be the parents’ watan where he is brought after birth and lives with his parents.

Question 703: Someone has been living in Ahvaz for several years, but he has not taken it as a second watan. What will be the rule of his prayers and fasting in this city when he returns to it after traveling out of it a distance more or less than the shar’i one?

A: After he makes the intent of iqamah in Ahvaz and the rule of full prayers applies to him through performing a single four-rak’ah prayers, he should make full prayers and fast there as long as he does not travel a shar’i distance out of this city; otherwise, if he travels a distance equal to or more than the masafah, the traveler’s rule will apply to him.

Question 704: I am an Iraqi and would like to change my watan from Iraq. Should I take Iran as a whole as my watan, or one of its areas, and do I have to buy a house so that I might take a watan?

A: For taking a new watan, it is necessary to make the niyyah of adopting a specific particular city as watan and to reside there long enough to be commonly considered as one of its residents. But the possession of a house in that city or anything else is not a condition.

Question 705: A person migrated from his birthplace to another city before maturity, and was not aware of the issue of changing watan. Having reached the age of taklif now, what is his duty concerning his prayers and fasting in his birthplace?

A: If he migrated from his birthplace following his father, and his father did not intend to return there for living, the watan’s rule will not apply to him in that place.

Question 706: Someone has a watan where he does not live at present, but goes there sometimes with his wife. Should his wife say full prayers there, like him, if she goes along with him to that place? What rule will apply to her prayers?

A: It is not sufficient that a place be the husband’s watan to make it a watan for the wife so that the watan’s rule should apply to her while being there.

Question 707: Does the rule of watan apply to one’s place of work?

A: It is not sufficient to work at a place for it to be one’s watan; but if one travels back and forth, at least once every ten days, between one’s residence and place of work, situated at a shar’i distance from his residence, the watan ’s rule, namely the obligation to say full prayers and to keep fasts, will apply to him while being in his place of work.

Question 708: What is meant by changing one’s watan? If a girl gets married and travels with her husband to where he wishes, will it amount to changing her watan?

A: It means leaving one’s watan with the intention not to return to live there. Her mere going to the husband’s house in another city does not entail change in her original watan.

Question 709: Please explain your opinion on the issue of original and second watan.

A: Original watan is where one is born, lives for a time, grows up, and flourishes. Second watan is where a mukallaf chooses for his permanent residence, though it should be for several months in a year.

Question 710: My parents are from Saveh. They both went to Tehran when they were young and took residence there. After marriage they went to Chalus, where my father works. Given that I was born in Tehran but did not live there at all, how should I say my prayers in Tehran and Saveh?

A: If you did not grow up in Tehran after being born there, Tehran will not be considered your original watan. Therefore, if you did not take Tehran or Saveh as your watan, the rule of watan will not apply to you in the two cities.

Question 711: What is your opinion about someone who has not changed his watan and has been residing in another city since six years. Given that he has kept following the late Imam (Khomeini) (q), should he say prayers in full or qasr when he returns to his watan?

A: As long as he has not turned away from his previous watan, the watan’s rule will remain valid in his case, and while he is there he should say full prayers and his fasting will be valid.

Question 712: A university student has rented a house in Tabriz in order to study in college for four years. Besides, he intends to stay in Tabriz permanently if possible. At the present, during the blessed month of Ramazan, he sometimes visits his original watan. Are these two considered his watans?

A: If he has not resolved to make the place of his studies a watan, the watan’s rule will not apply to him there. But his original watan will remain his watan as long as he does not abandon it.

Question 713: I was born in Kermanshah and have been living in Tehran since six years ago, but I have not turned away from my original watan, while I intend to adopt Tehran as watan as well. If I move from one locality of Tehran to another every one or two years, what rule will apply to my prayers and fasting while I am here? Since I have been living in the new locality (inside Tehran) for more than six months, does the watan’s rule apply to us here? How will our prayers and fasting be when we travel between different areas of Tehran during the day?

A: If you make niyyah to take present Tehran, or one of its areas, as watan, it will be your watan as a whole, and the watan’s rule, namely, the obligation to say prayers in full and validity of fasting, will apply to you in all areas of present Tehran, and the traveler’s rule will not apply to your traveling around inside present Tehran.

Question 714: Someone belongs to a village and works and lives in Tehran at present. His parents live in the village where they own some land and wells. He travels to the village to visit his parents or to help them, but is not interested at all in returning to live there. Given that he was born in this village, what is the rule of his prayers and fasting there?

A: If he does not intend to return to that village to live there, the watan’s rule will not apply to him when being there.

Question 715: Is one’s birthplace considered his watan even if he does not live there?

A: If he stays there for a period of time and grows up and flourishes there, the watan’s rule will apply to him while being there, otherwise it will not.

Question 716: What rule applies to the prayers and fasting of someone who has been living for a long time in a place which is not his watan (nine years) and is presently forbidden from returning to his watan, but is certain that he will return some day?

A: His rule with respect to his prayers and fasting in the place where he now lives is that of the traveler’s.

Question 717: I spent six years of my life in a village, and eight years in a city before came to Mashhad, where I now study. What is the rule of my prayers and fasting in each of these places?

A: The watan’s rule applies to you, concerning your prayers and fasting, while in the village, which is your birthplace, as long as you do not abandon it. But as for Mashhad, the traveler’s rule will apply to you as long as you do not make the niyyah of making it your watan. As for the city where you resided for several years, if you took it as your watan, watan’s rule will apply to you while being there, as long as you do not turn away from it; otherwise your rule, while being there, will be that of a traveler.

Dependence of Wife

Question 718: Is the wife subject to the husband with respect to watan and iqamah?

A: Matrimony alone does not cause obligatory subjection. Therefore, the wife may choose not to follow the husband with respect to the adoption of watan or the intent of iqamah in it. Of course, if the wife is not independent in her decisions and living, and she submits to her husband’s will with regard to taking watan and to turning away from it, her husband’s wish will suffice her in that regard, and the city to which her husband moves with her, intending to adopt it as his watan to live there permanently, will be her watan as well. Similarly, the husband’s abandoning their earlier watan, by leaving it for another place, will also be considered as her abandoning her watan. Concerning staying for ten days during travel, assuming that she submits to her husband’s wise, her knowledge of the husband’s intent of iqamah will be enough, even if she is compelled to accompany her husband during the period of his iqamah there.

Question 719: Should the wife follow her husband during the engagement period with respect to the issue of the traveler’s prayers?

A: Matrimonial relationship does not require the wife’s following the husband with respect to the intentions of travel, iqamah, or abandoning or adopting a watan. Rather, she is independent on all the above counts.

Question 720: A young man married a girl from another city. Are the girl’s prayers qasr or full whenever she goes to her father’s home?

A: Her prayers are full while in the original watan, as long as she does not abandon it.

Question 721: Are wife and children covered by the ruling no. 1284 of the risalah of Imam Khomeini (q) (according to which, it is not necessary for them to make the niyyah of travel also in order to be travelers)? Does the father’s watan cause the prayers of his dependents to be full-length?

A: In case they follow the father in traveling, though by compulsion, the father’s niyyah to cover the masafah will suffice them if they know about it. But as far as taking watan and abandoning it are concerned, if they are not independent in their decisions and living, in the sense of dependence on the father’s will in that regard, their case will depend on the father’s with respect to turning away from the watan and adopting the new watan where the father has shifted with them to live permanently and make it their watan.

Rules Of Large Cities

Question 722: What is your opinion concerning large cities with respect to the conditions of the niyyah of making them watan or of staying there for ten days?

A: There is no difference between a large city and an ordinary one in respect of the traveler’s rules and the niyyah to make watan or to stay for ten days. The watan’s rule will apply on making the niyyah to take a large city as watan and staying in that city for a period without specifying any particular area. Similarly, if one makes the niyyah to stay in such a city for ten days without specifying any particular area of it, his prayers will be full and his fasting will be valid.

Question 723: Until the Revolution a person had no knowledge of Imam Khomeini’s (q) verdict considering Tehran as a large city. What rule will apply to the prayers and fasts that he has performed in the usual way?

A: If he continues to do the taqlid of the late Imam (q) concerning this issue, it will be obligatory on him to repeat the past acts which did not conform to his verdict, by making the qaza’, in qasr, of the prayers performed in full while his duty was to perform them in qasr, and making the qaza’ of the fasts kept while he was a traveler.

Isti’jar Prayers

(Footnote: Isti’jar prayers are the prayers of a deceased person, missed before his death, which are performed after his death by a person hired for this purpose)

Question 724: I am unable to say prayers. May someone else say prayers on my behalf? Is there any difference between taking a substitute [na’ib] for a wage and without it?

A: According to Islamic law, it is obligatory on every mukallaf to perform his obligatory prayers by himself as long as he is alive, and it is not permissible that a substitute say prayers on his behalf, whether it is for a wage or without it.

Question 725: How is someone who performs isti’jar prayers to go about it? Firstly, is it obligatory on him to recite the azan, the iqamah, and the threefold salams, and the complete fourfold tasbihat? Secondly, if he performs zuhr and asr prayers, for example, one day and performs the complete five daily prayers on the next day, will it be necessary to observe their order? Thirdly, is it necessary to mention the specifics of the deceased person in isti’jar prayers?

A: Mentioning the specifics of the deceased person is not necessary. Order should be observed only between zuhrayn and isha’ayn. If the ajir [the person hired to say the prayers] is not ordered to follow a particular method in the ijarah contract, and there is no usual method implied by the generality of the ijarah contract, he must perform the prayers along with its mustahabbat according to the normal practice, but it will not be obligatory on him to say azan for all the prayers.

Ayat Prayers

Question 726: What is ayat prayers and what makes it obligatory according to Islamic law?

A: It is comprised of two rak’ahs, with five ruku’s and two sajdahs in each rak’ah. According to Islamic law, that which makes it obligatory includes solar and lunar eclipses, even when partial, earthquakes. And every ayah [sign] which scares most people, such as an unusual black, red, or yellow storm, an intense darkness, and a cry (from the heavens), and the fire which sometimes appears in the sky. Ayat prayers is not made obligatory by that which does not cause fear, excepting eclipses and earthquakes, nor by things which scare exceptions among people.

Question 727: How is ayat prayers performed?

A: Ayat prayers has several forms:

First Form: After making niyyah and saying the tahrim, one recites the Hamd and another chapter, and then performs ruku’. After raising one’s head from the ruku’, one recites Hamd and a chapter, and again performs ruku’. After raising one’s head from ruku’, one recites the Hamd and a chapter, followed by ruku’, and keeps on doing it until one completes in that rak’ah five ruku’s, each preceded by a Hamd and another chapter. Then, he goes on to perform sujud, and does two sajdahs, then stands up and performs the second rak’ah in the same manner as the first one, completing with two sajdahs, followed by tashahhud and taslim.

Second Form: After making niyyah and saying tahrim, one recites the Hamd and a verse of a chapter, then performs ruku’. Then rising from the ruku’ one recites another verse of that chapter, followed by ruku’. Then raising his head he recites another verse of the same chapter, and continues this procedure until the fifth ruku’, when he completes the chapter whose verse recited until the last ruku’. Then after the fifth ruku’, he performs two sajdahs, then stands up and recites Hamd and a verse of a chapter, followed by ruku’, and continues in the same manner as in the first rak’ah, finishing with tashahhud and taslim. If he wants to suffice with one verse of the chapter in every ruku’, he may not recite the Hamd more than once at the beginning of the rak’ah.

Third Form: One performs one of the two rak’ahs in one of the above two forms and the other rak’ah in the other form.

Fourth Form: One completes the chapter, of which he recited a verse in the first qiyam, in the second, third, or the fourth qiyam, for instance. Then it will be obligatory on him, after raising his head from the ruku’, to repeat Hamd in the following qiyam, and recite with it a chapter or verse of a chapter if he is before the fifth qiyam. If he suffices with one verse of a chapter before the fifth qiyam, he must complete that chapter before the fifth ruku’.

Question 728: Is the obligatoriness of ayat prayers limited to those who are in the area of occurrence of the ayat, or does it apply to any mukallaf who comes to know `bout it without being in the area?

A: It is obligatory only on those who are in the ayah’s region, and this rule also applies to those who are in places adjacent to the ayah’s spot of occurrence so as to be considered as belonging to one region.

Question 729: If someone is unconscious when an earthquake occurs, and becomes conscious after its occurrence, will the ayat prayers be obligatory on him?

A: If he regains consciousness immediately after the earthquake’s occurrence and becomes aware of it, the ayat prayers will be obligatory on him, not otherwise.

Question 730: After an earthquake in an area it is often nbserved that dozens of tremors occurs there in a short period of time. What is the rule with respect to ayat prayers in such cases?

A: If each quake is a separate one, ` separate ayat prayers must be performed for it, whether ht is violent or mild.

Question 731: The center of seismography reports the occurrence of several mild earthquakes in the area we live, mentioning theirb number, though we felt none of them. Will ayat prayers be obligatory on us in such a case?

A: If you did not feel the quakes during or immediately after their occurrence, the ayat prayers will not be obligatory on you.

Recommended Daily Prayers [Nafilahs]

Question 732: Should nafilah prayers be recited loudly or quietly?

A: It is recommended to perform the daytime nafilahs in a quietly and the nightly ones loudly.

Question 733: Is it permissible to perform Night prayers [salat al-layl], which are performed two rak’ahs by two rak’ahs, in this form: two sets of four rak’ah prayers, then two rak’ahs, followed by the watr prayers?

A: It is not correct to perform the night nafilah in the form of a four-rak’ah prayer.

Question 734: Is it necessary to perform the night prayers in the dark, and in such a manner that nobody knows that we do it?

A: It is not required to perform it in the dark or to hide it from others. To be sure, it is not permissible to make it to show off [riya’].

Question 735: When performing zuhr and asr nafilahs after performing zuhr and asr prayers during the nafilah’s time, should the niyyah be to make qaza’ or something else?

A: In such a case, it is more accordant with precaution to perform them for the sake of proximity [taqarrub] to God, the Exalted, not with a niyyah of ada’ or qaza’.

Question 736: Does someone who performs Ja’far al-Tayyar (a) prayers get all the reward pertaining to it simply by performing this prayers, or are there also other matters which must be observed?

A: There might be some other factors which affect the du’a’s acceptance. However, on performing Ja’far al-Tayyar (a) prayers be hopeful that your requests will be granted and you will achieve from the Creator, the Exalted One, its reward, promised for performing it as instructed.

Question 737: Please explain in detail the way of performing the night prayers?

A: Night prayers comprises of eleven rak’ahs in all. Eight of these rak’ahs, which are performed two by two, are called night prayers. The next two rak’ahs, which are performed like subh prayers, are called shaf’ prayers, and the last rak’ah is known as rak’at al-watr. It is recommended, in its qunut, to seek God’s forgiveness [istighfar], to pray for believers, and to make appeals for fulfillment of requests to the Baneficent Allah, in accordance with what is mentioned in the prayer texts.

Question 738: How should the night prayers be performed in respect of the chapters recited, istighfar [begging God’s forgiveness] and supplications?

A: The recitation of any chapter, or istighfar, or supplication is not required in the night prayers, neither as a part nor as a obligatory duty. After making niyyah and saying takbir, it is sufficient to recite the Hamd in every rak’ah, and to perform ruku’ and sujud, and say their zikr, followed at the end by tashahhud and taslim.

Miscellaneous Rules Of Prayers

Question 739: What are the condition on which it will be permissible to wake up one’s family members for subh prayers?

A: There are no particular condition with respect to family members.

Question 740: What rule applies to the prayers and fasting of those who are affiliated to different groups which are jealous of and even hostile to one another for no reason?

A: It is not permissible for a mukallaf to nurture envy, enmity and hostility towards others, but doing so does not invalidate one’s prayers and fasts.

Question 741: If a combatant on the warfront can not recite the Fatihah or perform sujud or ruku’ due to the intensity of battle, how should he say prayers there?

A: He should perform prayers in any possible way and if he cannot perform ruku’ and sujud, it will suffice him to do them through gestures.

Question 742: At what age must the father and mother teach their children the rules of Islamic law and the rites of worships?

A: It is recommended for the wali [guardian] to teach them the rules of Islamic law and the rites of worships when they reach the discrimination [tamyiz] age.

Question 743: Drivers of some passenger buses which travel between cities do not care about their passengers’ prayers. So they do not stop the bus on passengers’ request so that they may halt to say prayers. That may cause that passengers’ prayers become qaza’. What is the duty of bus drivers in this respect, and what is the passengers’ duty concerning their prayers in such a situation?

A: If the passengers’ fear the lapse of prayers time, it will be obligatory on them to ask the driver to stop the bus in a place appropriate for paying, and it will be obligatory on the driver to accept their request. If he refuses to stop the bus for an acceptable reason, or no reason, the passengers’ duty, if they fear the lapse of the prayer’s time, will be to say the prayers on the bus while it is moving, observing, so much as is possible, istiqbal, qiyam, ruku’ and sujud.

Question 744: Does the statement, "One who drinks wine has neither prayers nor fast for forty days" mean that it is not obligatory on him to say prayers during that period, and that he should make qaza’ for what he misses? Or does it mean that he should do ada’ as well as qaza’? Or that it is not obligatory on him to make qaza’ and ada’ will be sufficient, though its reward is less than the other prayers?

A: It means that drinking wine prevents the acceptance of prayers and fasts, not that it exempts one from the obligation to perform prayers and fast.

Question 745: What is my shar’i duty when I see someone performing some acts of prayers wrongly?

A: You have no obligation, unless his mistake is a result of his ignorance of the rule, in which case it is more precautions to guide him.

Question 746: What is your opinion concerning the praying persons doing handshake with each other immediately after the prayers? It is noteworthy that some of eminent scholars have said that nothing is mentioned on this subject from the Immaculate Imams (a), and therefore there is no basis for shaking hands. But at the same time, we know that shaking hands increases friendship and affection among those who gather for prayer.

A: There is no problem in shaking hands after the taslim and finishing the prayers, and in general, shaking hands with a believer is recommended.

 

 
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